Saturday, November 26, 2011

judgment day and the last person into paradise

The Prophet pbuh said, "Allah will say to that person of the (Hell) Fire who will receive the least punishment, 'If you had everything on the earth, would you give it as a ransom to free yourself (i.e. save yourself from this Fire)?' He will say, 'Yes.' Then Allah will say, 'While you were in the backbone  of Adam, I asked you much less than this, i.e. not to worship others besides Me, but you insisted on worshipping others besides me.' "(Sahih Bukhari)  Vol 4, Bk 55, 551 by Anas

We said, "O Allah's Apostle! Shall we see our Lord on the Day of Resurrection?" He pbuh said, "Do you have any difficulty in seeing the sun and the moon when the sky is clear?" We said, "No." He said, "So you will have no difficulty in seeing your Lord on that Day as you have no difficulty in seeing the sun and the moon (in a clear sky)."

The Prophet then said, "Somebody will then announce, 'Let every nation follow what they used to worship.' So the companions of the cross will go with their cross, and the idolators (will go) with their idols, and the companions of every god (false deities) (will go) with their god, till there remain those who used to worship Allah, both the obedient ones and the mischievous ones, and some of the people of the Scripture.

Then Hell will be presented to them as if it were a mirage. Then it will be said to the Jews, "What did you use to worship?' They will reply, 'We used to worship Ezra, the son of Allah.' It will be said to them, 'You are liars, for Allah has neither a wife nor a son. What do you want (now)?' They will reply, 'We want You to provide us with water.' Then it will be said to them 'Drink,' and they will fall down in Hell (instead).

Then it will be said to the Christians, 'What did you use to worship?' They will reply, 'We used to worship Messiah, the son of Allah.' It will be said, 'You are liars, for Allah has neither a wife nor a son. What: do you want (now)?' They will say, 'We want You to provide us with water.' It will be said to them, 'Drink,' and they will fall down in Hell (instead).

When there remain only those who used to worship Allah (Alone), both the obedient ones and the mischievous ones, it will be said to them, 'What keeps you here when all the people have gone?' They will say, 'We parted with them (in the world) when we were in greater need of them than we are today, we heard the call of one proclaiming, 'Let every nation follow what they used to worship,' and now we are waiting for our Lord.'

Then the Almighty will come to them in a shape other than the one which they saw the first time, and He will say, 'I am your Lord,' and they will say, 'You are not our Lord.' And none will speak: to Him then but the Prophets, and then it will be said to them, 'Do you know any sign by which you can recognize Him?' They will say. 'The shin  ' and so Allah will then uncover His shin  whereupon every believer will prostrate before Him and there will remain those who used to prostrate before Him just for showing off and for gaining good reputation.

These people will try to prostrate but their backs will be rigid like one piece of a wood (and they will not be able to prostrate).

Then the bridge will be laid across Hell." We, the companions of the Prophet said, "O Allah's Apostle! What is the bridge?' He said, "It is a slippery (bridge) on which there are clamps and (Hooks like) a thorny seed that is wide at one side and narrow at the other and has thorns with bent ends. Such a thorny seed is found in Najd and is called As-Sa'dan.

Some of the believers will cross the bridge as quickly as the wink of an eye, some others as quick as lightning, a strong wind, fast horses or she-camels. So some will be safe without any harm; some will be safe after receiving some scratches, and some will fall down into Hell (Fire).

The last person will cross by being dragged (over the bridge)." The Prophet said, "You (Muslims) cannot be more pressing in claiming from me a right that has been clearly proved to be yours than the believers in interceding with Almighty for their (Muslim) brothers on that Day, when they see themselves safe.

They will say, 'O Allah! (Save) our brothers (for they) used to pray with us, fast with us and also do good deeds with us.' Allah will say, 'Go and take out (of Hell) anyone in whose heart you find faith equal to the weight of one (gold) Dinar.'

Allah will forbid the Fire to burn the faces of those sinners. They will go to them and find some of them in Hell (Fire) up to their feet, and some up to the middle of their legs.

So they will take out those whom they will recognize and then they will return, and Allah will say (to them), 'Go and take out (of Hell) anyone in whose heart you find faith equal to the weight of one half Dinar.' They will take out whomever they will recognize and return, and then Allah will say, 'Go and take out (of Hell) anyone in whose heart you find faith equal to the weight of an atom (or a smallest ant), and so they will take out all those whom they will recognize."

Abu Sa'id said: If you do not believe me then read the Holy Verse:-- 'Surely! Allah wrongs not even of the weight of an atom (or a smallest ant) but if there is any good (done) He doubles it.' (4.40)

The Prophet pbuh added, "Then the prophets and Angels and the believers will intercede, and (last of all) the Almighty (Allah) will say, 'Now remains My Intercession. He will then hold a handful of the Fire from which He will take out some people whose bodies have been burnt, and they will be thrown into a river at the entrance of Paradise, called the water of life.

They will grow on its banks, as a seed carried by the torrent grows. You have noticed how it grows beside a rock or beside a tree, and how the side facing the sun is usually green while the side facing the shade is white. Those people will come out (of the River of Life) like pearls, and they will have (golden) necklaces, and then they will enter Paradise whereupon the people of Paradise will say, 'These are the people emancipated by the Beneficent. He has admitted them into Paradise without them having done any good deeds and without sending forth any good (for themselves).'

Then it will be said to them, 'For you is what you have seen and its equivalent as well.'"

Bukhari Vol 9, Bk 93, 532

By Abu Sa'id Al-Khudri

On the authority of Abu Huraira: The people said, "O Allah's Apostle! Shall we see our Lord on the Day of Resurrection?" The Prophet pbuh said, "Do you have any difficulty in seeing the moon on a full moon night?" They said, "No, O Allah's Apostle." He said, "Do you have any difficulty in seeing the sun when there are no clouds?" They said, "No, O Allah's Apostle." He said, "So you will see Him, like that.

Allah will gather all the people on the Day of Resurrection, and say, 'Whoever worshipped something (in the world) should follow (that thing),' so, whoever worshipped the sun will follow the sun, and whoever worshiped the moon will follow the moon, and whoever used to worship certain (other false) deities, he will follow those deities.

And there will remain only this nation with its good people (or its hypocrites). (The sub-narrator, Ibrahim  is in doubt.)

Allah will come to them and say, 'I am your Lord.' They will (deny Him and) say, 'We will stay here till our Lord comes, for when our Lord comes, we will recognize Him.' So Allah will come to them in His appearance which they know, and will say, 'I am your Lord.' They will say, 'You are our Lord,' so they will follow Him.

Then a bridge will be laid across Hell (Fire)' I and my followers will be the first ones to go across it and none will speak on that Day except the Apostles. And the invocation of the Apostles on that Day will be, 'O Allah, save! Save!' In Hell (or over The Bridge) there will be hooks like the thorns of As-Sa'dan (thorny plant). Have you seen As-Sa'dan? " They replied, "Yes, O Allah's Apostle!" He said, "So those hooks look like the thorns of As-Sa'dan, but none knows how big they are except Allah.

Those hooks will snap the people away according to their deeds. Some of the people will stay in Hell (be destroyed) because of their (evil) deeds, and some will be cut or torn by the hooks (and fall into Hell) and some will be punished and then relieved.

When Allah has finished His Judgments among the people, He will take whomever He will out of Hell through His Mercy. He will then order the angels to take out of the Fire all those who used to worship none but Allah from among those whom Allah wanted to be merciful to and those who testified (in the world) that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah.

The angels will recognize them in the Fire by the marks of prostration (on their foreheads), for the Fire will eat up all the human body except the mark caused by prostration as Allah has forbidden the Fire to eat the mark of prostration.

They will come out of the (Hell) Fire, completely burnt and then the water of life will be poured over them and they will grow under it as does a seed that comes in the mud of the torrent.

Then Allah will finish the judgments among the people, and there will remain one man facing the (Hell) Fire and he will be the last person among the people of Hell to enter Paradise.

He will say, 'O my Lord! Please turn my face away from the fire because its air has hurt me and its severe heat has burnt me.' So he will invoke Allah in the way Allah will wish him to invoke, and then Allah will say to him, 'If I grant you that, will you then ask for anything else?' He will reply, 'No, by Your Power, (Honor) I will not ask You for anything else.' He will give his Lord whatever promises and covenants Allah will demand.

So Allah will turn his face away from Hell (Fire). When he will face Paradise and will see it, he will remain quiet for as long as Allah will wish him to remain quiet, then he will say, 'O my Lord! Bring me near to the gate of Paradise.' Allah will say to him, 'Didn't you give your promises and covenants that you would never ask for anything more than what you had been given? Woe on you, O Adam's son! How treacherous you are!' He will say, 'O my lord,' and will keep on invoking Allah till He says to him, 'If I give what you are asking, will you then ask for anything else?' He will reply, 'No, by Your (Honor) Power, I will not ask for anything else.' Then he will give covenants and promises to Allah and then Allah will bring him near to the gate of Paradise.

When he stands at the gate of Paradise, Paradise will be opened and spread before him, and he will see its splendor and pleasures whereupon he will remain quiet as long as Allah will wish him to remain quiet, and then he will say, O my Lord! Admit me into Paradise.' Allah will say, 'Didn't you give your covenants and promises that you would not ask for anything more than what you had been given?'

Allah will say, 'Woe on you, O Adam's son! How treacherous you are! ' The man will say, 'O my Lord! Do not make me the most miserable of Your creation,' and he will keep on invoking Allah till Allah will laugh because of his sayings, and when Allah will laugh because of him, He will say to him, 'Enter Paradise,' and when he will enter it, Allah will say to him, 'Wish for anything.'

So he will ask his Lord, and he will wish for a great number of things, for Allah Himself will remind him to wish for certain things by saying, '(Wish for) so-and-so.' When there is nothing more to wish for, Allah will say, 'This is for you, and its equal (is for you) as well."

'Ata' bin Yazid added: Abu Sa'id Al-Khudri who was present with Abu Huraira, did not deny whatever the latter said, but when Abu Huraira said that Allah had said, "That is for you and its equal as well," Abu Sa'id Al-Khudri said, "And ten times as much, O Abu Huraira!" Abu Huraira said, "I do not remember, except his saying, 'That is for you and its equal as well.'" Abu Sa'id Al-Khudri then said, "I testify that I remember the Prophet pbuh saying, 'That is for you, and ten times as much.' ' Abu Huraira then added, "That man will be the last person of the people of Paradise to enter Paradise." (Sahih Bukhari) Vol 9, Bk 93, 532 by 'Ata' bin Yazid Al-Laithi

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can a person travel to Medina only to pray at the prophet pbuh's grave? how should we pray for the prophet pbuh?

We said, "O Allah's Apostle! (We know) this greeting (to you) but how shall we invoke Allah for you?" He pbuh said, "Say! Allahumma salli ala Muhammadin 'Abdika wa rasulika kama- sallaita 'ala all Ibrahim  wa barik ala Muhammadin wa'ala all Muhammadin kama barakta 'ala all Ibrahim  ' Al-Laith said: 'Ala Muhammadin wa 'ala all Muhammadin kama barakta ala all Ibrahim  (Sahih Bukhari)  Vol 6, Bk 60,321 by Abu Said Al-Khudri

'Muhammad is no more than a messenger: many Were the messenger that passed away before him. If he died or were slain, will ye then Turn back on your heels? If any did turn back on his heels, not the least harm will he do to Allah; but Allah (on the other hand) will swiftly reward those who (serve Him) with gratitude.' (Quran 3:144)

'Nor are alike those that are living and those that are dead. Allah can make any that He wills to hear; but thou canst not make those to hear who are (buried) in graves.' (Quran 35:22)

Quza'a heard Abu Said saying four words. He said, "I heard the Prophet (saying the following narrative)." He had participated in twelve holy battles with the Prophet pbuh. Narrated Abu Huraira: The Prophet pbuh said, "Do not set out on a journey except for three Mosques i.e. Al-Masjid-AI-Haram, the Mosque of Allah's Apostle , and the Mosque of Al-Aqsa, (Mosque of jerusalem  ."(Sahih Bukhari)  Vol 2, Bk 21, 281

Qaza'a Maula(freed slave of) Ziyad heard Abu Said Al-khudri narrating four things from the Prophet pbuh  and he appreciated them very much. He said, conveying the words of the Prophet. (1) "A woman should not go on a two day journey except with her husband or a Dhi-Mahram. (2) No fasting is permissible on two days: 'Id-ul-Fitr and 'Id-ul-Adha. (3) No prayer after two prayers, i.e. after the Fajr prayer till the sunrises and after the 'Asr prayer till the sun sets. (4) Do not prepare yourself for a journey except to three Mosques, i.e. Al-Masjid-AI-Haram, the Mosque of Aqsa (jerusalem   and my Mosque."(Sahih Bukhari) Vol 2, Bk 21, 288

When the disease of Allah's Apostle pbuh got aggravated, he covered his face with a Khamisa, but when he became short of breath, he would remove it from his face and say, "It is like that! May Allah curse the Jews christians  because they took the graves of their prophets as places of worship." By that he warned his follower of imitating them, by doing that which they did.(Sahih Bukhari) Vol 7, Bk 72, 706' by Aisha and 'Abdullah bin 'Abbas

Abdullah b. Amr b. al-As reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: When you hear the Mu'adhdhin, repeat what he says, then invoke a blessing on me, for everyone who invokes a blessing on me will receive ten blessings from Allah, then beg from Allah al-wasila  for me, which is a rank in Paradise fitting for only one of Allah's servants, and I hope that I may be that one. If anyone who asks that I be given the wasila   he will be assured of my intercession. (Sahih Muslim)  Ch 5, Bk  4,  0747'

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understanding the difference between prophets and messengers of God

Let us briefly examine the concepts of nubuwwah (Prophethood) and rasaalah (Messengership) in Islam to understand the comprehensive nature of what it means to be a prophet and messenger.

Many pseudo Islamic groups have taken advantage of some peoples’ lack of understanding in these matters and have manipulated the meanings of these ideas in order to open the door to various false ideologies.

In North America for instance, there have been those who wish to isolate and emphasize the word ‘Prophet’ because of the inherent religious connotation associated with the word in the minds of the people. In this regard, these groups readily admit that ‘Prophethood’ ended with Muhammad ibn ‘Abdillah (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam). However, what these groups either implicitly promote or explicitly state is that ‘Messengership’ has not been sealed, therefore allowing the possibility of any number of ‘messengers’ with new ‘messages’ to come after the passing of the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam).

The leaders of these movements promote the notion that to be a ‘messenger’ is something minor and that Prophethood is the major God-given position. This is because many people have stood up throughout history and made a claim to Prophethood and in each and every case they were refuted by the scholars of the era and relegated to heretical status in the eyes of most Muslims. However in recent times, some have attempted to overcome this obstacle by minimizing the concept of a ‘messenger’ in Islam and have made some form of claim to it with the goal of using a more palatable word for the people to digest.

The word messenger in the Arabic language is ‘rasool’ and the word ‘message’ is ‘risaalah’. The Arabic word ‘nabee’ means prophet. When speaking about the various Messengers and Prophets in the Qur’an, Allah uses both titles at different times to emphasize the various aspects of their missions. This includes the instances in the Qur’an where Allah (swt) speaks of or addresses the Messenger, Muhammad (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam).  And since Allah did not reveal the Qur’an for any type of hazl ; 

Verily! This (the Qur'an) is the Word that separates. And it is not a thing for hazl (amusement) (86: 13,14);  and warns against taking the Qur’an as mahjoor ;  And the Messenger will say: "O my Lord! Verily, my people deserted this Qur'an as mahjoor (something to be abandoned) (25:30), 

We must understand that every word in the Qur’an is perfectly placed and is the most perfect word utilized to convey the most perfect message. A Rasool of Allah (swt) is a nabee (prophet) who has been given a risaalah to convey to the people. This characteristic can be found in those Prophets whom Allah distinguished with some sort of specific laws or scripture to deliver to a particular people.

It is agreed by the scholars of this Ummah that the Prophet Nuh (‘alayhis-salaam) was the first to receive this distinction based on Allah’s statement;  Verily, We have inspired you (O Muhammad SAW) as We inspired Nuh (Noah) and the Prophets after him

In this verse, Allah describes the similarity of the mission of Nuh (‘alayhis-salaam) with that of the Messenger Muhammad (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) as well as the missions of those prophets after Nuh.

Allah (swt) uses the words ‘…ba’dihi’ to emphasize the fact that these specific types of prophets came after him (Nuh). A Prophet of Allah who does not have this specific trait still receives inspiration from Allah and may still convey general admonitions and glad tidings to others but not to the degree that they deliver a specific scripture or shari’ah.

Allah specifically speaks about the purpose of the missions of these special Prophets;  Mankind were one community and Allah sent Prophets with glad tidings and warnings, and with them He sent the Scripture in truth to judge between people in matters wherein they differed. And only those to whom (the Scripture) was given differed concerning it after clear proofs had come unto them through hatred, one to another. Then Allah by His Leave guided those who believed to the truth of that wherein they differed. And Allah guides whom He wills to a Straight Path (2: 213). 

In some ayat Allah (swt) makes a clear distinction between the nature of prophethood and prophethood accompanied by the position of rasool;  And mention in the Book (this Qur'an) Musa (Moses). Verily! He was chosen and he was a Rasool (Messenger) (and) a Nabee (Prophet) (19: 51). 

If there were no need to distinguish between the two positions, there would be no need for Allah, Mighty and Majestic, to include both titles for Musa, for Allah is high above using words merely for hazl (amusement). This point is further emphasized when we consider what Allah says two verses afterwards about the brother of Musa, Harun, when he says;  And We bestowed on him his brother Harun (Aaron), (also) a Nabee (Prophet), out of Our Mercy (19:53).

  It is clear that though Harun was distinguished as a Nabee, he was not given the title of Rasool. Ibn Katheer (rahimahullah) in his Tafseerul-Qur’anil-Adheem notes about verse 19:51 in which Allah describes Musa as Rasool and Nabee: ‘Allah combined these two descriptions for him. For Verily, He was one of the greatest messengers and one of the five messengers of strong will. They are Nuh, Ibrahim, Musa, ‘Isa, and Muhammad. May the blessings of Allah be upon them and all the prophets.’ (Vol.6,pg.274)

This distinction is also made clear in the following verses;  And mention in the Book (the Qur'an) Isma'il (Ishmael). Verily! He was true to what he promised, and he was a Rasool (Messenger) and a Nabee (Prophet). (19:54)

Ibn Katheer states about this verse: In this is a proof of Isma’il’s favored status over his brother, Ishaq.

Ishaq was only described as being a prophet but Isma’il was described with both Prophethood and Messengership. (Vol.6,pg.275

Allah continues describing the mission of Isma’il as one of conveying specific instructions and commandments to his people;

And he used to enjoin on his family and his people As-Salaat (the prayers) and the Zakaat, and his Lord was pleased with him (19:55)

The Arabic ‘ya’muru ahlahu bis-salaati-wa’zakaah’ literally means he commanded his people with the prayer and Zakaat. This is evidence that he was commissioned to enjoin upon his people a specific shari’ah which is the distinguishing characteristic of a Nabee who is also a Rasoolullah.

With this understanding, we can conclude that to claim to be a ‘messenger’ of Allah without authority from Allah is equally if not more heretical than the claim to prophethood because within the context of Islam, this means that the one who makes the claim has specific laws and commandments directly from Allah, Mighty and Majestic.

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Thursday, November 24, 2011

Divorce when both parties swear they are truthful in an accusation of adultery without any refund of dowry

A man said, "O Allah's Apostle pbuh! If a man finds another man with his wife, (committing adultery   should the husband kill him?" Later on I saw them (the man and his wife) doing Lian in the mosque.(Sahih Bukhari) Vol 1, Bk 8, 415 by Sahl bin Sa'd

Ibn 'Abbas said Hilal bin Umaiyya accused his wife of illegal sexual intercourse and came to the Prophet pbuh to bear witness (against her), (taking the oath of Lian). The Prophet pbuh was saying, "Allah knows that either of you is a liar   Will anyone of you repent (to Allah)?" Then the lady got up and gave her witness. (Sahih Bukhari) Vol 7, Bk 63, 227

I said to Ibn 'Umar, "If a man accuses his wife of illegal sexual intercourse (what is the judgment)?" He said, "Allah's Prophet pbuh separated the couple of Bani 'Ajlan (when the husband accused his wife for an illegal sexual intercourse). The Prophet pbuh said, 'Allah knows that one of you two IS a liar   so will one of you repent?' But they refused. He then again said, 'Allah knows that one of you two is a liar   so will one of you repent?' But they refused, whereupon he separated them by divorce."

Aiyub (a sub-narrator) said: 'Amr bin Dinar said to me, "In the narration there is something which I do not see you mentioning, i.e. the husband said, "What about my money (Mahr)?' The Prophet pbuh said, "You are not entitled to take back money, for if you told the truth you have already entered upon her (and consummated your marriage with her) and if you are a liar  then you are less entitled to take it back.

(Sahih Bukhari)  Vol 8, Bk 77, 609

Ibn 'Abbas did not see anything so resembling minor sins as what Abu Huraira said from the Prophet pbuh, who said, "Allah has written for the son of Adam his inevitable share of adultery  whether he is aware of it or not: The adultery  of the eye is the looking (at something which is sinful to look at), and the adultery  of the tongue is to utter (what it is unlawful to utter), and the innerself wishes and longs for (adultery   and the private parts turn that into reality or refrain from submitting to the temptation."(Sahih Bukhari)  Vol 7, Bk 63, 261 by Said bin Jubair

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Wednesday, November 23, 2011

The Things that Nullify One’s Faith and turn a Muslim to a kaffir

Brothers and sisters! You must be aware that there are things that nullify your Islam.

We will mention here the ten most common ones. Please be mindful of them.  The First: Associating partners with Allah (shirk).

Allah, the Most High says: “Truly, whoever associates partner with Allah, Allah will forbid him the Garden, and his abode will be the Fire, and the wrongdoers will have no helpers.” [Surah al-Maa`idah (5):72]

Invoking the dead, asking their help, or offering vows and sacrifices to them are all forms of shirk.

The Second: Setting up intermediaries between oneself and Allah, making supplication to them, asking their intercession with Allah, and placing one’s trust in them is an act of unbelief (kufr)

The Third: Anyone who does not consider polytheists (mushrikeen) to be unbelievers, who has doubts concerning their unbelief, or considers their ways to be correct, is himself an unbeliever (kaafir). 

The Fourth: Anyone who believes that some guidance other than the Prophet’s guidance is more perfect or a judgement other than the Prophet’s judgement is better has become an unbeliever. This applies to those who prefer the rule of the taaghoot over the Prophet’s rule.

Some examples are:

(a) To believe that systems and laws made by human beings are better than the Sharee‘ah (legislative system) of Islam, for example:

That the Islamic system is not suitable for application in the twenty-first century.

That the Islamic system is the cause of backwardness of Muslims.

Or that Islam is only a relationship between a man and His Lord and does not have any relations with other aspects of life.

(b) To say that the implementation of the commands of Allah in regards to the fixed punishments (Hudood) prescribed by Allah, such as cutting off the hand of a thief or stoning an adulterer, is not suitable in this day and age.

(c) To believe that it is permissible to rule by a law other than what Allah has revealed in Islamic transactions, matters of criminal justice or other affairs, even if he does not believe that such rulings are superior to the Sharee‘ah. This is because by doing so he would be declaring as permissible something which Allah made impermissible.

Anyone who regards as permissible something that Allah has made impermissible, such as adultery, drinking alcohol, usury, and similar things whose prohibition is common knowledge; such a person has become an unbeliever according to the consensus of all Muslims.

The Fifth: Anyone who hates anything that the Messenger (pbuh ) has declared to be lawful has nullified his Islam, even if he were to abide by it and act upon it. Allah () says

This is because they disliked what Allah has revealed, so their deeds are brought to nothing.” [Surah Muhammad (47):9]

The Sixth: Anyone who mocks Allah, His Book, His Messenger (pbuh ) or any other aspect of Allah’s religion has indeed become an unbeliever.

Allah () says:  * “Say: Is it Allah, His Signs and His Messenger that you are mocking. Make no excuse: you have disbelieved after your (profession of) faith.” [Surah atTawbah (9):65-66]

The Seventh: The practice of magic, which includes the act of separating between a husband and wife by turning his love for her into hatred, or tempting a person to do things he dislikes through devilish arts. Anyone who engages in such acts or is pleased with it is outside the circle of Islam.

Allah , the Most High () says

The two angels (Haaroot and Maaroot) did not teach anyone (magic) without warning them: ‘In-deed, we are a trial, therefore, do not disbelieve.’ ” [Surah al-Baqarah (2):102] 

The Eighth: Supporting and aiding the polytheists against the Muslims. Allah () says:             “He among you who supports them becomes one of them. Truly, Allah does not guide the people who do wrong.” [Surah al-Maa`idah (5):51] 

The Ninth: Anyone who believes that some people are permitted to deviate from the Sharee‘ah of Muhammad (pbuh ) is an unbeliever, due to the saying of Allah

Anyone who seeks a religion other than Islam, it will not be accepted from him, and in the hereafter he will be among the losers.” [Surah Aali ‘Imraan (3):85]

The Tenth: To turn away from the religion of Allah, or those aspects which are necessary in order to remain within its fold, neither learning its precepts nor acting upon it. Allah () says: “But those who disbelieve turn away from that of which they are warned.” [Surah al-Ahqaaf (46):3]

It makes no difference whether such violations are committed jokingly, seriously, or out of fear, except if they are done under a state of compulsion.

We seek refuge in Allah from those deeds that entail His wrath and severe punishment

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Islam is the fastest growing religion

According to Guinness Book of World Records, Islam is the world’s fastest-growing religion by number of conversions each year

Although the religion began in Arabia, by 2002 80% of all believers in Islam lived outside the Arab world. In the period 1990-2000, approximately 12.5 million more people converted to Islam than to Christianity .[24] In 1990 , 935 million people were Muslims and this figure had risen to around 1.2 billion by the year 2000 , meaning that around this time one in five people were followers of Islam.

According to the BBC, a comprehensive American study concluded in 2009 the number stood at 1 in 4 with 60% of Muslims spread all over the Asian continent

A report from an American think-tank has estimated 1.57 billion Muslims populate the world - with 60% in Asia.

The report was done by the Pew Forum Research Centre . The forum also projected that in 2010 out of the total number of Muslims in the world 62.1% will live in Asia.

However the report also included a statement saying While the global Muslim population is expected to grow at a faster rate than the non-Muslim population, the Muslim population nevertheless is expected to grow at a slower pace in the next two decades than it did in the previous two decades.

From 1990 to 2010, the global Muslim population increased at an average annual rate of 2.2%, compared with the projected rate of 1.5% for the period from 2010 to 2030 .

The report also made reference to the fact that Muslims are estimated to make up 23.4% of the total global population in 2010 (out of a total of 6.9 billion people) and that by 2030 Muslims will represent about 26.4% of the global population (out of a total of 8.9 billion people) .

According to the Christian Plain Truth magazine (Issue 2 February 1984) and also published in an edition of the Readers Digest magazine, shows statistics of the growth of the major world religion, with Islam at the highest increase at 235% with Christianity second place at 46%.

This  data was acquired by comparing numbers from 1934 to 1984 across half a century.

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Monday, November 21, 2011

what happens to us in the graves?

Allah's Apostle pbuh said, "When carried to his grave   a dead person is followed by three, two of which return (after his burial) and one remains with him: his relative, his property, and his deeds follow him; relatives and his property go back while his deeds remain with him."(Sahih Bukhari) Vol 8, Bk 76, 521 Anas bin Malik

The Prophet pbuh used to say, "O Allah! I seek refuge with You from laziness from geriatric old age, from being in debt, and from committing sins. O Allah! I seek refuge with You from the punishment of the Fire, the afflictions of the grave   the punishment in the grave   and the evil of the affliction of poverty and from the evil of the affliction caused by Al-Masih Ad-Dajjal. O Allah! Wash away my sins with the water of snow and hail, and cleanse my heart from the sins as a white garment is cleansed of filth, and let there be a far away distance between me and my sins as You have set far away the East and the West from each other."(Sahih Bukhari) Vol 8, Bk 75, 386' by Aisha

Once Allah's Apostle pbuh passed by (the grave  of) a Jewess whose relatives were weeping over her. He said, "They are weeping over her and she is being tortured in her grave  "(Sahih Bukhari)  Vol 2, Bk 23, 376' by Aisha (the wife of the Prophet)

The Prophet pbuh said, "The deceased is tortured in his grave  for the wailing done over him."(Sahih Bukhari)  Vol 2, Bk 23, 379 by Ibn 'Umar from his father

Allah's Apostle pbuh passed by two graves  and said, "Both of them (persons in the grave   are being tortured, and they are not being tortured for a major sin. This one used not to save himself from being soiled with his urine, and the other used to go about with calumnies (among the people to rouse hostilities, e.g., one goes to a person and tells him that so-and-so says about him such-and-such evil things). The Prophet pbuh then asked for a green leaf of a date-palm tree, split it into two pieces and planted one on each grave  and said, "It is hoped that their punishment may be abated till those two pieces of the leaf get dried." (Sahih Bukhari) Vol 8, Bk 73, 78 by Ibn 'Abbas (See Hadith No 215, Vol 1).

Aisha said that a Jewess came to her and mentioned the punishment in the grave   saying to her, "May Allah protect you from the punishment of the grave  " 'Aisha then asked Allah's Apostle pbuh about the punishment of the grave   He said, "Yes, (there is) punishment in the grave  " 'Aisha added, "After that I never saw Allah's Apostle pbuh but seeking refuge with Allah from the punishment in the grave  in every prayer he prayed."Hadith(Sahih Bukhari) Vol 2, Bk 23, 454 by Masruq'

Allah's Apostle pbuh said, "When (Allah's) slave is put in his grave and his companions return and he even hears their footsteps   two angels come to him and make him sit and ask, 'What did you use to say about this man (i.e. Muhammad)?' The faithful Believer will say, 'I testify that he is Allah's slave and His Apostle.' Then they will say to him, 'Look at your place in the Hell Fire; Allah has given you a place in Paradise instead of it.' So he will see both his places." (Qatada said, "We were informed that his grave would be made spacious." Then Qatada went back to the narration of Anas who said;) Whereas a hypocrite or a non-believer will be asked, "What did you use to say about this man." He will reply, "I do not know; but I used to say what the people used to say." So they will say to him, "Neither did you know nor did you take the guidance (by reciting the Quran)." Then he will be hit with iron hammers once, that he will send such a cry as everything near to him will hear, except Jinns and human beings. (Sahih Bukhari)  Vol 2, Bk 23, 456 by Anas bin Malik (See Hadith No. 422).

Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) having said: When the servant is placed in his grave and his companions retrace their steps arid he hears the noise of the footsteps   then two angels come to him and make him sit and say to him: What you have to say about this person (the Holy Prophet)? If he is a believer, he would say: I bear testimony to the fact that he is a servant of Allah and His Messenger. Then it would be said to him: Look to your seat in the Hell- Fire, for Allah has substituted (the seat of yours) with a seat in Paradise. Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: He would be shown both the seats. Qatada said: It was mentioned to us that his grave (the grave of a believer) expands to seventy cubits and is full with virtue until the Day when they would be resurrected. (Sahih Muslim)  Ch 17, Bk  40, 6862 by Anas b. Malik

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Evidence for The General March and its Justification

Allah the Almighty the Majestic says: "March forth, whether you are light(being
healthy, young and wealthy) or heavy(being ill, old and poor), strive hard with your
wealth and your lives in the cause of Allah. This is better for you if you but knew."
Soorat At Tauba: 41

In a preceding verse the arrangement of punishment and the replacement by a people who carry Islam, has been mentioned as a recompense for those who do not march forward. Allah does not punish except those who leave an obligation or perform forbidden acts. "If you march not forth, he will punish you with a painful torment and will replace you by another people, and you cannot harm him at all and Allah is able to do all things."

Ibn Kathir said: "Allah the Exalted ordered that everybody march forward with the
Messenger of Allah (saw) (the General March) in the expedition of Tabuk to fight the
enemies of Allah, the unbelieving Romans of the People of the Book". Bukhari has
written a chapter in Sahih Bukhari (entitled The Chapter On The Obligation of Marching Forward and What is Required from Jihad and Intention for It) and quoted this verse".

It was a general call because it became known to the Muslims that the Romans were
gathering on the borders of the Arabian Peninsula and were preparing to invade Medina. So what is the situation is the Kuffar enter a Muslim country, does not the march forward become the ultimate priority?.

Abu Talha (ra) said about the Exalted's words:"...light or heavy...": "old and young Allah did not listen to anyone's excuse". And Hasan al Basri said: "in hardship and in ease."

1. Ibn Taymia said in Majmua al Fatawa 28/358: "If the enemy intends an attack
upon the Muslims, then repelling him becomes obligatory upon the population under
attack as well as the population not under attack. The Exalted has said: "...But if they seek your help in religion, it is your duty to help them...".

As well, the Prophet (saw) ordered the assisting of a Muslim in need. Whether or not one is a salaried soldier, and no matter what his capabilities, it is an obligation upon everybody with their persons and wealth, little or much, riding or on foot. As it was when the enemy attacked Medina in the Battle of the Trench, Allah allowed no one to be exempted."

Az Zuhuri said: "Saeed Bin al Mussayb went on a military expedition and he lost
one of his eyes. It was said to him: "you are injured". He replied, "Allah has ordered the light and the heavy to march forward, therefore if it is not possible for me to fight, I will make your numbers seem greater by my presence and I can watch over your things".

2 Allah Almighty the Majestic says: "...and fight the Mushrikun (polytheists, pagans,
idolaters, disbelievers in the oneness of Allah) collectively, as they fight against you

Ibn Arabi said: "collectively means besieging them from every side and in all possible circumstances."

3 Allah Almighty and Majestic says: "And fight them until there is no more Fitnah
(disbelief and polytheism: i.e. worshipping others besides Allah) and the religion
(worship) will all be for Allah alone (in the whole of the world)..." ?? The Fitnah means Shirk as Ibn Abbas and as Siddi said: "When the Kuffar attack and control a country, the Ummah is endangered in its religion and it becomes susceptible to doubt in its belief . Fighting then becomes an obligation to protect the religion, lives, 'Ard and wealth."

4 He (saw) has said: "There is no Hijr after the Opening (of Mecca) but there is jihad and the intention for it. So if you are called to march forth then march forth". Reported by Bukhari.

It is an obligation to march forth if the Ummah is called to do so, and in the
situation of an enemy attack. The Ummah is called to march forward to protect its
religion. The extent of the obligation is related to the need of the Muslims or demand of the Imam. As Ibn Hajr has clarified in the explanation of this hadith.
Al Qurtubi said: "Anyone who is aware of the weakness of the Muslims in the face
of their enemy, knows that he can reach them and can assist them, it is also upon him to march forward."

5 Every religion which Allah has revealed safeguards five essential aspects: the religion, life, 'Ard, the mind and property. Consequently, there must be measures to safeguard these five by any means. So, Islam orders repelling the aggressor.
The aggressor is one who imposes himself with violence upon others, seeking their life, their wealth or their 'Ard. Al Muttaqun: means pious and righteous persons who fear Allah much (abstain form all kinds of sins and evil deeds which he has forbidden) and love Allah much (perform all kinds of good deeds which he has ordained).

A-The aggressor against 'Ard.
Even if a Muslim displays aggression against 'Ard, it is obligatory to defend it from
him by the agreement of the Ulama even if this leads to killing him. Accordingly, the Ulama have stated that it is not permitted for a Muslim woman to surrender or allow herself to be captured even if she is killed, if she fears for her 'Ard.

B- Repulsion of the aggressor who attacks property and life is obligatory as agreed
upon by majority of the Ulama, and corresponds to the consensus of the Maliki and
Shaffie Mathhabs. Even if this leads to killing a Muslim aggressor. In a sahih hadith: "Whoever is killed protecting his wealth, he is a martyr. Whoever is killed protecting his blood, he is a martyr. Whoever is killed protecting his family, he is a martyr". Hadith sahih narrated by Ahmad, Abu Daud, at Tirmidhi and Nisa'i.

Al Jassas after coming to knowledge of this hadith, said: "We know of no difference of opinion, that if a man bears his sword to another man to kill him unjustly,
that it is upon the Muslims to kill this aggressor."

In this situation if the aggressor is killed he will be in the Hellfire, even if he was a Muslim. Whereas, if the defender is killed he will be a martyr. This is the ruling for a Muslim aggressor, so how will it be if the Kuffar invade a Muslim land, where they would oppress and assail the religion, 'Ard, lives and property to the point of disappearance. Is it not the foremost obligation upon the Muslims in this situation to repel this disbelieving aggressor, whether he be alone or a whole nation!?

6 If the Kuffar use Muslim captives as human shields in front of them in an advance to occupy a Muslim land, it remains an obligation to fight the Kuffar even if this leads to the killing of the Muslim captives.

Ibn Taymia said in Majmua al Fatawa 28/537: "If with the Kuffar there are pious
people from the best of mankind and it is not possible to fight these Kuffar except by killing them, then they are to be killed as well. The leading scholars are in accord that if the Kuffar use Muslim captives as human shields, and there is fear for the rest of the Muslims if they are not fought, then it is permitted to shoot them aiming the Kuffar.

One of the sayings of the scholars is that, even if we do not fear for the Muslims in general, it is permissible to shoot the Muslim captives". And on pg.45 he said: "The Sunnah and Women are included in the defenition of the Arabic word "Ard".

Ijma agree that if the aggression of a Muslim aggressor cannot be stopped except by
killing him, then he must be killed, even if his transgression is over a fraction of a dinar. Because, in a sahih hadith: "whoever is killed protecting his wealth, he is a martyr"." And this is because the protection of the remaining Muslims from Fitnah and Shirk, and the protection of the religion, 'Ard and wealth are more of a priority than a small number of Muslims captives in the hands of the Kuffar.

7 The fighting of the renegade Muslim group.
Allah the Exalted has said: "And if two parties or groups among the believers fall into fighting, then make peace between both, but if one of them rebels against the
other, then fight you (all) against the one that which rebels till it complies with the command of Allah; then if it complies, then make reconciliation between them justly, and be equitable. Verily! Allah loves those who are equitable."

If Allah had made it an obligation to fight the renegade Muslim group, to unify the Muslims and protect their religion, 'Ard and wealth, then, what will the ruling be for fighting the aggressing Kaffir nation? Does it not take priority?

8 The ruling for the one who wages war.
The Almighty the Majestic says: "The recompense of those who wage war against Allah and His messenger and do mischief in the land is only that they shall be killed or crucified or their hands and feet be cut off from the opposite sides, or exiled
from the land. That is their disgrace in this world, and a great torment is theirs in
the hereafter."

This is the ruling applied on the one who wages war from among the Muslims. He
spreads distress and corruption in the land and he infringes upon wealth and 'Ard. This is the ruling which the Messenger of Allah (saw) carried out upon the sick Bedouins who turned apostate as has been reported in the Sahihs.

What should be the treatment of the Kaffir nation that brings calamity upon the
people, their religion, their wealth and their 'Ard? Is not the first obligation upon the Muslims to fight them? These are some of the evidences and reasons that corroborate the ruling on the General March when the Kuffar enter a Muslim land.

Verily, the repelling of the Kaffir enemy is the most important obligation after
Iman, as said Ibn Taymia: "The first obligation after Iman is the repulsion of the enemy aggressor who assaults the religion and the worldly affairs".

"And what is wrong with you that you fight not in the Cause of Allah, and for those
weak, ill-treated and oppressed among men, women, and children, whose cry is:
"Our Lord! Rescue us from this town whose people are oppressors; and raise for us
from You one who will protect, and raise for us from You one who will help."
An Nisa: 75.

Jihad Against the Kuffar is of Two Types

Offensive Jihad (where the enemy is attacked in his own territory).
Where the Kuffar are not gathering to fight the Muslims.

The fighting becomes Fard Kifaya with the minimum requirement of appointing believers to guard borders, and the sending of an army at least once a year to terrorize the enemies of Allah.

It is a duty of upon the Imam to assemble and send out an army unit into the land of war once or twice every year. Moreover, it is the responsibility of the Muslim population to assist him, and if he does not send an army he is in sin.

And the Ulama have mentioned that this type of jihad is for maintaining the
payment of Jizya. The scholars of the principles of religion have also said: "Jihad is Da'wah with a force, and is obligatory to perform with all available capabilities, until there remains only Muslims or people who submit to Islam."

Defensive Jihad
This is expelling the Kuffar from our land, and it is Fard Ayn, a compulsory duty
upon all. It is the most important of the compulsory duties and arises in the following conditions:
A) If the Kuffar enter a land of the Muslims.
B) If the rows meet in battle and they begin to approach each other.
C) If the Imam calls a person or a people to march forward then they must march.

Haashiyat Bin Aabideen 3/238.

Hashiyat Ash Shouruni and Ibn al Qasim in Tahfa al Mahtaj ala al Minhaj 9/213.ഊD) If the Kuffar capture and imprison a group of Muslims.

The First Condition: If the Kuffar Enter a Muslim Land.
In this condition the pious predecessors, those who succeeded them, the Ulama of
the four Mathhabs (Maliki, Hanafi, Shaffie and Hanbali), the Muhadditheen, and the
Tafseer commentators, are agreed that in all Islamic ages, Jihad under this condition
becomes Fard Ayn upon the Muslims of the land which the Kuffar have attacked and
upon the Muslims close by, where the children will march forth without the permission of the parents, the wife without the permission of her husband and the debtor without the permission of the creditor. And, if the Muslims of this land cannot expel the Kuffar because of lack of forces, because they slacken, are indolent or simply do not act, then the Fard Ayn obligation spreads in the shape of a circle from the nearest to the next nearest.

If they too slacken or there is again a shortage of manpower, then it is upon the people behind them, and on the people behind them, to march forward. This process continues until it becomes Fard Ayn upon the whole world.

Sheikh Ibn Taymia says on this topic: "About the defensive jihad, which is
repelling an aggressor, is the most tasking type of jihad. As agreed upon by everyone, it is obligatory to protect the religion and what is sacred. The first obligation after Iman is the repulsion of the enemy aggressor who assaults the religion and the worldly affairs.

There are no conditional requirements such as supplies or transport, rather he is fought with all immediate capability. The Ulama, our peers and others have spoken about this."

Ibn Taymia supports his opinion of the absence of the requirement of transport in his
reply to the Judge who said: "If jihad becomes Fard Ayn upon the people of a country,
one of the requirements, in comparison to Hajj, is that one must have supplies and a ride if the distance is such that one shortens the prayer".

Ibn Taymia said: "What the Judge has said in comparison to Hajj has not been stated before by anybody and is a weak argument. Jihad is obligatory because it is for the repulsion of the harm of the enemy, therefore it has priority over Hijr . For Hijr no transport is considered necessary. Of the jihads some take priority. It is furthered in a sahih hadith narrated by Ebaad Bin Asaamat that the Prophet (saw) said: "it is upon the Muslim to listen and obey in hardship and prosperity, in what he likes and dislikes, and even if he is not given his rights".

Therefore, the pillar of the most important of obligations, is the marching forward in times of hardship as well as prosperity. As has been stated, contrary to Hajj, the
obligation remains present in times of hardship. And this is in offensive jihad. So it is clear that defensive jihad carries a greater degree of obligation. To defend the sacred things and the religion from the aggressor is obligatory, as agreed upon by everyone.

The first obligation after Iman is repulsion of the enemy aggressor who assaults the religion and the worldly affairs" . Now we look at the opinions of the four Mathhabs who are all in agreement on this point.

Opinions of the Mathhabs
Hanafi Fiqh
Ibn Aabidin said : "Jihad becomes Fard Ayn if the enemy attacks one of the
borders of the Muslims, and it becomes Fard Ayn upon those close by. For those who are far away, it is Fard Kifaya, if their assistance is not required. If they are needed, perhaps because those nearby the attack cannot resist the enemy, or are indolent and do not fight jihad, then it becomes Fard Ayn upon those behind them, like the obligation to pray and fast.

There is no room for them to leave it. If they too are unable, then it becomes Fard Ayn upon those behind them, and so on in the same manner until the jihad becomes Fard Ayn upon the whole Ummah of Islam from the East to the West".
And the following have like Fatawa: Al Kassani, Ibn Najim and Ibn Hammam

Maliki Fiqh
In Hashiyat ad Dussuqi it is stated: Jihad becomes Fard Ayn upon a surprise attack
by the enemy. Dussuqi said: "Wherever this happens, jihad immediately becomes Fard
Ayn upon everybody, even women, slaves and children, and they march out even if their
guardians, husbands and creditors forbid them to."
Hashiyat ad Dussuqi 2/174.

Shaffie Fiqh
In the Nihayat al Mahtaj by Ramli: "If they approach one of our lands and the
distance between them and us becomes less than the distance permitting the shortening of prayers, then the people of that territory must defend it and it becomes Fard Ayn even upon the people for whom there is usually no jihad; the poor, the children, the slaves, the debtor and the women."

Hanbali Fiqh
In Al Mughni by Ibn al Qadamah: "Jihad becomes Fard Ayn in three situations:
1) If the two sides meet in battle and they approach each other.
2) If the Kuffar enter a land, jihad becomes Fard Ayn upon its people.
3) If the Imam calls a people to march forward it is obligatory upon them to
march forward."

And Ibn Taymia remarked: "If the enemy enters a Muslim land, there is no doubt
that it is obligatory for the closest and then the next closest to repel him, because the Muslim lands are like one land. It is obligatory to march to the territory even without the permission of parents or creditor, and narrations reported by Ahmad are clear on this."

This situation is known as the General March.

Ibn Taymiyyah On The Need For A State

by 'Abdul'atheem Islaahi
Source: Economic Concepts of Ibn Taimiyah
Courtesy Of:

Ibn Taimiyah, like most Islamic thinkers regarded the institution of government as indispensable. Describing the need for a state, he says: “It should be noted that to regulate the affairs of people is one of the most important requirements (wajibat) of the religion (al-din). 1

Really speaking, al-din cannot be established without it. The well-being of the sons of Adam cannot be accomplished except through a well- organized society (ijtima') because they are in need of one another; and for such a society a ruler is indispensable.” 2

He gives two reasons for regarding the state and leadership as a religious duty. First, the saying of the Prophet: 'If three persons set out on a journey, they should appoint one of them their leader.' Citing this hadith, he argues: 'If
a leader is considered necessary on a journey - a temporary association of a few persons - it is an instruction to have it in all kinds of greater associations' 3

He further argues that the duty of commanding good and forbidding evil cannot be completely discharged without power (quwwah) and authority (imarah). The same applies to all religious duties, like holy war (jihad), justice, establishment of pilgrimage and prayers, helping those who are wronged and meting out punishment in accordance with the legal penalties (iqamah al -hudud).4

Since all these tasks cannot be carried on without government and power, the Institution of government and state is necessary from the religious point of view.
It is worth mentioning here that, on the same ground, some eminent Muslim scholars of the present age have strongly advocated the view that political power is a necessary means to enforce Islam fully in personal and social life.

Al-Mawardi (991-1058), Abu Ya`la al-Farra' (990-1065), al-Ghazali (1031-1111), Ibn Jama'ah (1241-1333) and Ibn Khaldun (1332-1406) have all emphasized the need for the state and its religious character.

Al-Mawardi, Abu Ya`la and Ibn Khaldun distinguish between two types of government, based on reason ('aqliyah) and the higher form of government based on revealed law (Shari`ah). The first merely guards against mutual injustice, discord and anarchy, and strives for worldly well-being, while the second provides for the positive enforcement of law and justice in mutual confidence and fellowship; above all, it takes into account the well-being of the community in the Hereafter as well as in this world.5

To Ibn Taimiyah authority is preferable to anarchy. Although he asks Muslims not to obey orders contrary to the commandments of Allah and forbids them to cooperate with an unjust ruler, 6 he does not advocate open rebellion or encourage overthrowing him. He quotes the saying: 'Sixty years of an unjust imam (ruler) are better than one
night without a sultan.' 7

Al-Ghazali and Ibn Jama'ah also take the view that any effort to depose even a tyrannous sultan is liable to create chaos and lawlessness.8

Following the Greek philosophers, St. Thomas Aquinas also adopts this view, on which William Archibald Dunning has commented: 'In respect to individual action in slaying tyrants, he observes that it is more often bad men than the good that undertake such an enterprise, and that, since bad men find the rule of kings no less burdensome than that of tyrants, the recognition of the right of private citizens to kill tyrants involves rather more chance of losing a king than of being relieved of a tyrant.' 9

Behind the view that an individual should not try to remove an established unjust ruler may have been the bitter experience of these thinkers that the newcomer often proved a worse incompetent than the outgoing one. Moreover, the instability and chaos created by the overthrow of the regime always retarded economic growth and
prosperity and affected adversely the social and academic institutions.

However, it may be that these thinkers failed to suggest the proper way to get rid of a tyrant. But this does not mean that for Ibn Taimiyah, as for the European mercantilists 10 of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, the state was the be-all and end-all. As against the attitude of mercantilism in which 'the welfare of the state was substituted in place of the amelioration of the individual', 11

Ibn Taimiyah emphasizes that the necessary objective of those in authority (wilayah) is to improve the material and religious conditions of the people in preparation for the life to come.12

He expresses the need for close co-operation between those in authority and the people.13

By contrast, mercantilism was essentially amoral, as Hecksher explains: 'The mercantilists were amoral in a two-fold sense, both in their aims as also in the means for the attainment of their ends. This two-fold amorality arose from their widespread indifference towards mankind, both in its capacity as a reasoning animal,
as also in its attitude towards the eternal.' 14

Mercantilist thinkers like Machiavelli (1469-1527) and Jean Bodin (1520-96) freed politics from all moral and ethical considerations and held the state accountable to no one. 15

In Ibn Taimiyah's view, the authority exercised by the state is not absolute. It is a trust (amanah) from Allah, and it is to be exercised in accordance with the terms laid down in the Shari`ah. He quotes a hadith of the Prophet, peace be upon him, to support his argument.

Abu Dharr, a Companion of the Prophet, reported that he said: 'It (sovereignty) is a trust, and on the day of judgement it will be a thing of sorrow and humiliation except for those who were deserving of it and did well.' 16

Elsewhere, he observes that 'the government is a religious duty, to seek Allah's favour by fulfilling its obligations with all one's might is one of the noblest of good deeds (afdal a'mal al-salihah)'. He again quotes a hadith that 'to Allah the most beloved of His creatures is a just sovereign (imam 'adil) and the most hateful is a tyrannical one'. 17

Ibn Taimiyah believes that for appointment to a public office the most suitable person should be chosen on grounds of relevant competence (quwwah) and integrity (amanah), the two most necessary qualities. However,since it is not always easy to find a person who possesses both in equal measure, the most essential quality for
the particular office should be determined.18

Erwin Rosenthal comments: 'Ibn Taimiyah is realistic enough to suggest that ability to fill an office - courage and bravery in a war-leader, judgement and power of enforcement in a judge - is more important than piety and loyalty if nobody can be found who combines all requirements.

In support he appeals to the Sunnah. Muhammad (upon him be peace) was always guided in the choice of a leader by the welfare of the ummah as the overriding consideration, even if his subordinates were to surpass him in knowledge and faith. If no one person is available who possesses in himself all the qualities needed for an office one has to appoint as many as together are endowed with them.' 19 And he goes on to observe: 'This idea is strongly reminiscent of al-Farabi and goes back ultimately to Plato, as does the idea of men forming an association to help each other to satisfy their need.' 20

It is strange that Rosenthal should first say that Ibn Taimiyah derives his view from the Sunnah and then say the view is reminiscent of al- Farabi who, it is implied, got it ultimately from Plato, as if the true source of authority for Ibn Taymiyah were Greek.

In fact, of course, that similar ideas are found in two different sources is not, without documentary evidence, proof that the later source is derived from the earlier one.

1. By 'al-din' he means the religion of Islam, which provides not only a unique system of worship and moral
rectitude but also a code of life. No aspect of man's behaviour, including politics and economics, is outside it.
2. Ibn Taimiyah, al-Siyasah al-Shar'iyah (Cairo: Dar al-Sha'b, 1971), p. 184.
3. Ibid., p. 185.
4. Ibid.
5. Cf. Ibn Khaldun, Muqaddimah (Beirut: Dar al-Fikr, n.d.), pp. 150-1; cf. Al-Mawardi, Al-Ahkam al-Sultaniyah
(Egypt: M. al-Babi, 1973), p. 5.
6. Ibn Taimiyah, al-Siyasah at-Shar'iyah, op. cit., pp. 16, 61. back
7. Ibid., p. 185.
8. Cf. Rosenthal, Erwin I. J., Political Thought in Medieval Islam (Cambridge University Press, 1962), p. 44.
9. Dunning, W. A., A History of Political Theories (Allahabad: Central Book Depot, 1966), p. 200.
10. Mercantilism developed at the end of the Middle Ages. According to the mercantilist writers it is very important
that the state should be economically strong and powerful, and this can be done only through foreign trade.
11. Heckscher, Eli F., Mercantilism, trans. by Shapiro. (London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1962), Vol. 2, p.
12. Ibn Taimiyah, Al-Siyasah al-Shar'iyah, op. cit., p. 36.
13. Ibid., pp. 42, 60.
14. Heckscher, op. cit., p. 285.
15. Gray, A. and Thompson, A., The Development of Economic Doctrine (New York: Longman, 1980), p. 56.
16. Ibn Taimiyah, al-Siyasah al-Shar'iyah, op. cit., p. 22.
17. Ibn Taimiyah, al-Hisbah, (Dar al-Sha'b, 1976), p. 11.
18. Cf. Ibn Taimiyah, al-Siyasah al-Shar'iyah, op. cit., pp. 25-33. back
19. Rosenthal, Erwin 1. J., op. cit., p. 54.
20. Ibid., pp. 54-5.

Sunday, November 20, 2011

An Interview with Umm Saalih, A Grandmother Who Completed Memorizing the Qur‘aan at Eighty-Two Years Old

As Read by Dr. Saleh as Saleh.

Al-Hamdulillaah (All-Praise is due to Allah), the One Who said (what means): "And in truth We have made the Qur'aan easy to remember; but is there any that remembers?" Surah 54: 32

Many all over the world memorize the Qur‘aan, and it is not strange to see the youth memorizing the Noble Qur‘aan and an early age. Al Hamdulillaah, the One who made the Qur’aan easy for remembrance, had made it easy for Umm Saalih age 82.

In an interview with Umm Saalih, she was asked the following questions:

Q1: “What was the reason that drove you to memorize the Qur’aan after so many years?” 

She said, “I always hoped to memorize the Qur‘aan from the time I was young. My father always used to invoke Allaah for me to become one of the memorizers of the Qur‘aan, like himself and like the elder brothers of my family who memorized it. So I memorized in the beginning about three parts and then after I completed the age of thirteen, I got married and became busy with the household and the children.

After I had seven children, my husband died. They (the children) were all young so I took the time to raise them and educate them, and then after they grew up and got married, I had more time for myself. Therefore, the first thing I directed myself to focus upon was the Qur‘aan.

Q2: “Tell us about your journey with the Noble Qur‘aan.” 

She said, “My younger daughter was going to high school and she was the closest of my children to me and the most beloved, because she stayed with me after her older sisters got married and got busy with their lives, and because she was a quiet girl, upright, loving, and good. In addition, she was interested in learning the Noble Qur‘aan, and her teachers encouraged her.

Furthermore, she was very enthusiastic and always told me of many women who were driven by this great motivation to memorize the Qur'aan, and this is where I started.” 

Q3: “Tell me about your way of memorization.” 

She said, “We assigned ten verses (meaning her and her daughter who was going to high school). So each day after Asr, we used to sit together. She reads and I repeat after her three times. Then she explains the meaning to me, and after a while, she repeats that three times. On the next morning, she repeats them to me before she goes to school.

She recorded also the recitations of Ash Shaykh al Husary, Rahimuhullaah, repeating each verse three times and thus I continued to listen most of the time.

Therefore, the next day we would go to the next ten verses if my memorization was good. Otherwise, we would postpone taking additional verses until the day after. Moreover, we assigned the day of Friday to review the memorizations of the entire week. And this was the journey from the beginning.” 

Then she said, “Over four years and a half, I memorized twelve juz’ according to the way I described to you. Then this young daughter got married.

When her husband knew of our task concerning the memorization, he rented a house close to me, close to my house, so that he could allow the continuation of the memorization. In addition, he, May Allah reward him used to encourage us and sometimes sit with us listening, explaining and teaching. Then after three years of her marriage, my daughter got busy with the children and the household and our schedule was interrupted, but that did not make her give up. To the contrary, she sensed that my eagerness for the memorization was still established so she looked for a special good teacher to continue the journey under her supervision.

So, I completed the memorization by the success of Allaah and my daughter is still working to finish the memorization of the Glorious Qur‘aan. She has a little left, In Shaa Allaah Ta‘aala. 

Q4:  “This motivation of yours, did it have an effect on other women around you?” 

She said, “It really had a good strong effect. My daughters and stepdaughters were all encouraged and worked on learning and teaching the Qur‘aan to their children and learning it themselves

Q5: “After finishing the Noble Qur‘aan, don’t you think about working on memorizing hadith?”  

She said, “Now I have memorized ninety hadith and In Shaa Allaah I will continue the journey. I depend, in my memorization, upon the tapes and upon the Qur‘aan radio station. At the end of each week, my daughter comes and checks for me the memorization of three hadith, and I am trying now to memorize more.

Q6: “Over this period of memorization of the Qur‘aan, did your life change? Was it affected in one way or another?”

She said, “Yes, I went through a major change and I tried always, all praise is due to Allaah, to obey Allaah before I started the memorization.

However, after I started the task of memorization, I began to feel a self-comfort, a great self-comfort and all worries began to move away from me.

I even reached the stage of freeing myself from all these excessive worries concerning fearing for the children and their affairs, and my morale was boosted.

I had a noble objective to work for and this is a great Ni’mah (Favor) from Allaah  upon me, since we know that some women, when they get old and they do not have a husband, and their children got married, may be destroyed by the empty time, thoughts, worries, and so forth. But, Al Hamdulillaah, I didn’t go through this and I made myself busy with a great task and a great objective.

Q7: “Didn’t you think at one point, to join one of the circles focusing on teaching the Noble Qur‘aan?”  

The answer was, “Yes, some of the women suggested this to me, but I am a woman who got used to staying at home, and I don’t like to go out everyday, and Al Hamdulillaah, my daughter sufficed me from all difficulty and I was so happy while I was learning from her.

My daughter had set an example in goodness and righteousness which we rarely find in our days. She started this task and journey with me while she was an adolescent and this is a critical age many people complain of. She used to pressure herself so that she could have spare time to teach me, and she used to teach me with kindness and wisdom. Her husband was a good help to her and he exerted a lot of effort. I ask Allaah  to give them success and to bring their children up on uprightness.”

Q8: “What do you say to a woman of your age who wishes to learn and memorize the Qur‘aan yet she is worried about it and feeling unable to?”

She said, “I say to her there  their shall be no despair with the firm, sincere  and truthful determination. Begin with sincerity, firm determination and dependence on Allaah at each time. And remember that at this age you should have the time for yourself.  However, do not use your time to only go out or to sleep and so forth. Rather, busy yourself with righteous work. 

Q9: “Now what would you say to a woman who is still young? What would you advise her?”

She, may Allaah preserve her, said: “Preserve Allaah and He will preserve you. Make use of the favor of Allaah bestowed upon you from health and ways and means of comfort. Use that to memorize the Book of Allaah.

This is the light which enlivens your heart, your life and your grave after you die. And if you have a mother then exert the effort to teach her, and there is no better favor upon a mother than one of her righteous children aiding her to be close to Allaah.”

Presented on the 1st of Muharram 1426, Feb 10th 2005. 

Originally published in Ad-Da'wah Magazine, no. 1552, 17th of Rabee' Al-Awwal 1417, corresponding to Aug 1, 1996.

Acknowledgment: May Allah reward sister Umm Maahir al-Amreekiyyah for transcribing the original presentation on Paltak

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be gentle with the Muslim women

[Author: Abū Muhammad al-Maqdisī]

Translation: At-Tibyān Publications

Anyone who knows the criminal reality of disbelief today with the indecency and degeneracy of the disbelievers of our time, and who is concerned with preserving the honour of Muslim women, will not rush to involve Muslim women unnecessarily in acts of fighting, Jihād, organization, or other such tasks that may be performed by the men.

Despite being non-Muslims, the disbelievers of the past were known to have a sense of honour and chivalry; when the lowest of Allāh’s creatures rushed to the house of Prophet Lūt (peace be upon him) out of desire for his guests, Prophet Lūt said to them,“O my people! Here are my daughters, they are purer for you”, [1] they replied, “Surely you know that we have no right to your daughters!” [2]

So despite the indecency and filth they practiced they still respected the rights of his daughters, either because they were the daughters of a man from their people, or because they knew that his daughters were not lawful for them, as they themselves were disbelievers.

Even though Lūt had perhaps only offered his daughters to divert his people from his guests - or for any another reason - what is important is that despite the transgression, wrongdoings and debasement of his people, they did not aggress against his daughters and they respected their rights, for they knew they had no right to them.

Similarly, when the polytheists of Quraysh plotted and conspired against the Prophet to kill, imprison, or expel him from his home, one of their ignorant men proposed that they break into his house. Abū Jahl, the leader of the disbelievers, strongly rejected and condemned this, saying, “Do you want the Arabs to reproach us for alarming the daughters of Muhammad?” One of their poets would say, And I lower my eyes if my neighbour appears to me Until my neighbour in her abode is concealed and another would say, If the winds bent the house of my neighbour, I became occupied until the house concealed its side.

But the disbelievers of our time do not respect the ties of kinship or covenant with the believers, and they would like for illegal sexual intercourse to be propagated among those who believe.[3] They have grown accustomed to accusing innocent chaste women of illegal intercourse, and slandering the honour of the believing men and women.

Thus, every Muslim should protect the Muslim women from the filth of these polytheists; so they should not grant the disbelievers an avenue by which to reach them by involving them in matters for which the men can suffice, and in which the enemies of Allāh may gain power over them.

There are many illustrations of this in our times, some of which are displayed at the forefront of demonstrations and conflicts with organizations.

This is done by many mislead groups , who allow the people to thereby witness the enemies of Allāh hitting the Muslim women with sticks and chasing them with dogs, and some of them would alert the police but be exposed to the most obscene replies and vulgar insults. They are truly an indecent people who have neither shame nor sense of honour.

Sometimes, the women are entrusted with organizational jobs, or some equipment, weapons or funds are hidden in their keeping. When this is discovered, the women will be forcibly interrogated and overpowered by indecent, vile individuals who will humiliate them, or be impudent towards them and insult them in a manner unacceptable to any Muslim or free man for the insult to his honour - this is if matters do not extent to levels among the lowest and most despised of the behaviours of the enemies of Allāh.

The matter may then be referred to their non-Muslim courts, and pictures of the Muslim women will be broadcast on their televisions and on the pages of their newspapers, and they also may be thrown into their dirty prisons alongside prostitutes and other disreputable women.

No rational Muslim who knows the obscenity and dirtiness of the enemies of Allāh should charge up the daughters of the Muslims with empty zeal so that he may lead them to slippery ground that will land them in the claws of these despicable villains, as long as the men are able to dispense of their help. It is not permissible to evidence the permissibility of this with the calamities that Allāh has decreed for some Muslim woman, for there is a difference between the enemies of Allāh overpowering a woman simply for being a Muslim - as occurred to some of the weak and oppressed early Muslim women, and as occurs to women like them in every era, who find none to protect or help them - and between the disorderliness of the callers to Islām or Mujāhidīn enabling the enemies of Allāh to overpower a woman, and furnishing them with justifications and warrants to remove their veils and involve them in acts with reprehensible consequences.

Rather, the rational Muslim who desires to protect his women must refrain from even making mention of them before the enemies of Allāh in interrogations and similar situations, and he must not charge or entrust them with actions that may lead to an interrogation. This is so that the disbelievers will have no chance to pursue, follow or interrogate them - let alone insult and arrest them - for as has been mentioned, they are debased ignobles who cannot be trusted with honour, or anything else.

In summary: Involving Muslim women in fruitless actions or interrogations, or entrusting them tasks that may be performed by men, is a matter that no rational, free Muslim can relish, especially in a time of weakness where the Muslims have neither state nor land to seek shelter in, protect them and defend their honour.

If there is to be an Islamic state that mobilizes colossal troops to revenge the screams of a Muslim woman in any corner of the earth, then the Muslim women must protected from such slippery ground, and it is better to occupy them in fields purely connected to the discipline and da‘wah of women.

If the honour of a Muslim woman is attacked, then it is obligatory for the Mujāhidīn to respond in a harsh and painful manner that will scare off future offenders, and remain as a distinct deterrent for all those whose souls beg them to the same.

The Mujāhidīn should always remember - as should their enemies - that Ka‘b ibn al-Ashraf was included under a covenant that protected his blood, but the Messenger of Allāh allowed his blood to be shed. A young man from among the supporters of this religion killed him, and [the Muslims] raised his head on their swords for his allusion to the love of some Muslim women.

And finally, they should also remember that the Muslim’s creed and religion dictates that that whoever dies defending his honour is a martyr. Thus was narrated by the truthful one, who is believed. May the prayers and peace of Allāh be upon him.

[1] [2] [3] Translator’s note: Hūd, verse 78 Translator’s note: Hūd, verse 79 Translator’s note: See al-Tawbah, verse 8 and al-Nūr, verse 19

(This is an excerpted chapter, from a forthcoming Tibyān Publication: Min Thamrāt al-Jihād by Shaykh Abū Muhammad al-Maqdisi

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