Thursday, July 3, 2014

RAMADAN: DU’AA’ AT THE TIME OF IFTAAR AND SUHOOR

There are du’aa’s that are narrated in the Sunnah which the fasting person may say at the time of breaking the fast. He may say “Dhahaba al-zama’u wa abtalat al-‘urooq wa thabat al-ajru in sha Allaah (Thirst has gone, the veins are moist, and the reward is assured, if Allah wills).” He may also say whatever du’aa’ he wants, not because that is mentioned specifically in the Sunnah, but because it is the end of an act of worship, and it is prescribed for the Muslim to say du’aa’ in that case.

Shaykh Muhammad ibn Saalih al-‘Uthaymeen (may Allah have mercy on him) was asked: Is there any du’aa’ narrated from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) which is to be said at the time of breaking the fast? When should it be said? Should the fasting person repeat the adhaan after the muezzin or continue breaking his fast?


He replied:


The time of breaking the fast is a time when du’aa’s are answered, because it is the end of an act of worship, and because a person is usually at his weakest when breaking his fast. The greater a person’s sense of helplessness and weakness is, the closer he is to humility before Allah. The du’aa’ that is narrated is: “Allaahumma laka sumtu wa ‘ala rizqika aftartu (O Allah, for You have I fasted and by Your provision I have broken my fast).” And the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “Dhahaba al-zama’ wa abtalat al-‘urooq wa thabat al-ajr in sha Allaah (Thirst has gone, the veins are moist, and the reward is assured, if Allah wills).” Although there may be some weakness in these two hadeeths, some scholars classed them as hasan. Whatever the case, if you says these du’aa’s or some others when breaking the fast, this is a time when du’as are answered. End quote.


Source: Majmoo’ Fataawa al-Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (19/question no. 341)


With regard to suhoor, there is no specific du’aa’ to be said at this time. What is prescribed is to say Bismillah at the beginning and to praise Him when one stops eating, as should be done at every meal.


But the one who delays his suhoor until the last third of the night also catches up with the time of the divine descent, and this is a time when du’aa’s are answered.


It was narrated from Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said:


“Our Lord, may He be blessed and exalted, comes down to the lowest heaven every night when the last third of the night is left, and He says: ‘Who will call upon Me, that I may answer him? Who will ask of Me, that I may give him? Who will ask Me for forgiveness, that I may forgive him?’”


[Narrated by al-Bukhari (1094) and Muslim (758)]


So he should say du’aa’ at this time because it is a time when du’aa’ is answered, not because of suhoor.


With regard to making the intention to fast, the site thereof is the heart, and it is not prescribed to utter it out loud. Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah said: “Whoever thinks in his heart that he will fast tomorrow has formed the intention.”


And Allah knows best.


‘Umar said: The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) used to say when breaking his fast: “Dhahaba al-zama’u wa abtalat al-‘urooq wa thabat al-ajru in sha Allaah (Thirst has gone, the veins are moist, and the reward is assured, if Allah wills).” [Narrated by Abu Dawood, 2357; al-Daaraqutni, 25. Ibn Hajar said in al-Talkhees al-Habeer (2/202): al-Daaraqutni said, its isnaad is saheeh]


The du’aa’ “Allaahumma laka sumtu wa ‘ala rizqika aftartu” (O Allah, for You have I fasted and by Your provision I have broken my fast)” was narrated by Abu Dawood, 2358. [It is a mursal hadeeth so it is da’eef (weak). Al-Albaani classed it as da’eef in ben dawwad (510) ]


Saying du’aa’ after doing acts of worship is deeply rooted in Shari’ah, such as making du’aa’ after praying and after completing the rituals of Hajj. Fasting is not excluded from that in sha Allah. Allah mentioned the verse of du’aa’ and encouraged du’aa’ among the verses that speak of fasting, as Allah says (interpretation of the meaning):


“And when My slaves ask you (O Muhammad) concerning Me, then (answer them), I am indeed near (to them by My Knowledge). I respond to the invocations of the supplicant when he calls on Me (without any mediator or intercessor). So let them obey Me and believe in Me, so that they may be led aright”


[Surah al-Baqarah 2:186]


Pointing out the importance of making du’aa’ during this month, Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah said:


Allah tells us that He is close to His slaves and responds to the supplication (du’aa’) of the one who calls upon Him. Here He is telling us of His Lordship (ruboobiyyah) over them and that He gives them what they ask for and He responds to their du’aa’. For if they call upon Him that means they believe that He is their Lord… Then He enjoins two things upon them, as He says (interpretation of the meaning):


“So let them obey Me and believe in Me, so that they may be led aright”


[Surah al-Baqarah 2:186]


The first is that they should obey His commands to worship Him and seek His help.


The second is that they should believe in His Lordship (ruboobiyyah) and Divinity (uloohiyyah), and that He is their Lord and their God. Hence it is said that response to a person’s du’aa’ is indicative of the soundness of his belief and the perfection of his obedience, because the verse of du’aa’ ends with the words (interpretation of the meaning):


“So let them obey Me and believe in Me, so that they may be led aright”


[Surah al-Baqarah 2:186]


Source: Majmoo’ al-Fataawa, 14/33


Weakness in the Hadeeth for a Well Known Du’aa’ for Breaking the Fast


Shaykh Ali Reda (may Allah bless him) said: A brother from Qatar called me then sent the question through the web. He asked me about the hadeeth, “Whenever the Prophet (peace blessings be upon him) broke fast he would say: “The thirst is gone and the veins are moistened and the reward is certain in sha Allah.” He said: Some of the scholars have graded it as being hasan, and among them are Shaykh Al-Albaani. However, he had doubt about this isnad. In this chain there was a narrator that no one acknowledged as being trustworthy other than Ibn Hibban. Moreover only two narrators narrated on him. Therefore this narrator is – Majhoul Al-Hal.


I (Shaykh Ali Reda) answered him by saying: With Allah is the success. Yes, Shaykh Al-Albaani (may Allah rest him in Jannah) graded it as being hasan in Irwa Al-Ghalil #920. And he mentioned that al-Daaraqutni graded it as being hasan too.


Al-Albaani held the isnad of this hadeeth as being hasan. And Al-Hakim’s grading of the hadeeth as being saheeh is what supported the narrator, who was Majhoul Al-Hal. The Majhoul Al-Hal narrator is Marwan ibn Salim Al-Muqqafi’.


Shaykh Al-Albaani’s speech is strong and in fact Ibn Hajr agreed with al-Daaraqutni’s view of the hadeeth being hasan [refer to Talkees Al-Habeer 2/202]. Ibn Hajr didn’t mention a single comment about this hadeeth.


Nonetheless in conformity with the science of hadeeth and according to his own terminology, Ibn Hajr said that “Muqqafi’ is Maqbul”, in other words if his narrations agree with others. Otherwise he is Layyenul Hadeeth.” [At-Taqreeb page 81]


After researching for another narrator whose narration agrees with Muqqafi’ I came to the conclusion that the isnaad is layyen and not hasan. I looked in other books which Shaykh Al-Albaani did not mention. Books like Targheeb At-Tarheeb by Al-Asbaahanee, Sharus Sunah by Al-Bagawee and others. In the end I did not find anyone who shared in the narration or narrator with Muqqafi’.


Imam Al-Mizzee mentioned this hadeeth by way of ibn Munthu. He commented at the end of the hadeeth “This hadeeth is ghareeb. We only recorded it from Hussain ibn Waqid.” Hussain narrated this hadeeth from Al-Muqqafi’. This only supports a second narrator on Muqqafi’, but not a different narrator.


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