Saturday, August 23, 2014

Hijab in Islam is not due to sexual obsession

I am curious about the coverings that you have to wear if youre a female in your religion/culture. it really does all seem very vain for us that are Christian because it implies that a woman thinks every man wants her if she is not wearing this type of garb. it also seems that men are not to be trusted with someone from your culture/religion becuase of your "beauty" that you feel you posess, but people could be beautiful and not every man wants them. can you shed some light on this for me? I will be honest and say that when I see someone wearing this, I always think "how vain are you?". thank you ahead of time for replying.



Praise be to Allah.


First of all we would like to thank you for your frankness, the clarity of your question and your search for an answer. We hope that you will find the answer in these few lines we write.


We will begin our answer by posing a question, which we would like you to answer, then after that our point will become clear, by Allah’s leave. Our question is: do you think that if a girl takes off all her clothes and walks about in the markets of London or Paris completely naked, will you accept that from her or will the authorities and laws in that place allow her to do that?


We think it most likely that your answer will be no, and that you will not accept this idea, especially since the laws that protect public order do not allow that at all. This is no secret to anyone who lives in that country.


If we take it to another level, we say to you: do you think that if she wore something that covered her private parts, but it uncovered her chest and she went shopping topless, we think that you would also agree that such behaviour is ill-mannered and that it is disrespectful and a transgression of public etiquette as it is known among people.


Forget about those who expose themselves blatantly; what do you think that if a woman went out in the streets and public places wearing nightclothes…?


Perhaps you also know that the authorities in Western countries have the right to object to those who wear swimwear in public places, and that the manager of the company or boss in a workplace has the right to prevent female employees from working with him wearing revealing, provocative clothing, and it is mandatory to wear regular, modest clothing.


Our question now is: do you think all these countries, people, organisations, laws and customs are vain or obsessed with sex, as you say? Or do you think they are abhorrent and unjust, aimed at suppressing freedom, and could not be introduced by anyone but people who are obsessed with sex? Do you think that if a woman uncovers her chest or her private parts or wears swimwear in public places, all men will want her or that she is engaging in prostitution and trying to tempt them?


If you say that there is a difference between the two scenarios, and nakedness in public places is unacceptable, but that uncovering the hair and face is something normal and is not provocative and does not transgress public order, we say to you: who is to decide between us and you in defining the parts of the body that may be uncovered and the parts that it is unacceptable to uncover? Why do you want to make us adhere to the limits that you set, and do not want to accept the limits set out in Islamic sharee‘ah?


Furthermore, why should a particular society, such as Western society, decide for other societies what is appropriate for them and what is not?


Once you know that banning nakedness or scanty dress in public places does not imply all the things that you mentioned in your question, then we would tell you that we Muslims believe that modest dress is this hijab which you see Muslim women wearing and accuse them of being vain?


Why do you look at modesty, or whatever you think is contrary to public taste, manners and morals – why do you regard your point of view or that of your society as the criterion for judging other societies or people?


Why do you reject our view concerning this matter, and ask us to adhere to your concept and definition of modesty? If a girl uncovers her thighs and stomach, is this modesty? Or should she limit it to uncovering her legs and forearms only? What is the guideline for your choices in this matter? What right do you have to make all of humanity adhere to your particular concept?


Or: is this a remnant of the “right” of the white man or, let’s say, the white or blonde woman, to control the world and define its concepts, customs, manners and taste?


Why do you not describe the Virgin Mary (peace be upon her) as you have described us in your question as being “vain”? You know that she wore a kind of hijab. Did she understand modesty as something sexual, according to your description?


Why do women in the church cover their hair during the service in the church and during the prayer?


What is the difference between the state of prayer and outside prayer? If wearing the hijab during prayer increases piety and faith, then why would a woman remove part of her faith and piety outside of prayer?


Why do you not make the same accusation of vanity with regard to what is mentioned in the first Epistle of the apostle Paul to the Corinthians, in which he says:


“But every woman who prays or prophesies with her head uncovered dishonors her head—it is the same as having her head shaved.


For if a woman does not cover her head, she might as well have her hair cut off; but if it is a disgrace for a woman to have her hair cut off or her head shaved, then she should cover her head.


A man ought not to cover his head, since he is the image and glory of God; but woman is the glory of man.


For man did not come from woman, but woman from man;


neither was man created for woman, but woman for man.


It is for this reason that a woman ought to have authority over her own head, because of the angels.”


1 Corinthians 11:5-10 – New International Version (NIV)


In the first Epistle of Paul to Timothy, it says:


“I also want the women to dress modestly, with decency and propriety, adorning themselves, not with elaborate hairstyles or gold or pearls or expensive clothes,


but with good deeds, appropriate for women who profess to worship God.


A woman should learn in quietness and full submission.


I do not permit a woman to teach or to assume authority over a man; she must be quiet.”


1 Timothy 2:9-12– New International Version (NIV)


Furthermore, the face-covering (niqab) is also mentioned in the Bible, as a sign of modesty and good manners in a woman.


In the book of Genesis it says:


“He went out to the field one evening to meditate, and as he looked up, he saw camels approaching.


Rebekah also looked up and saw Isaac. She got down from her camel


and asked the servant, ‘Who is that man in the field coming to meet us?’


‘He is my master,’ the servant answered. So she took her veil and covered herself.”


Genesis 24:63-66 – New International Version (NIV).


We do not have room here to quote more verses than these. There have been specialist studies dealing with such matters, which you can try to find and study.


All we are trying to do is base our discussion with you on logic and fair-mindedness towards others and on a sound foundation of thinking and discussion, far removed from any accusations of “vanity” and the like. Such accusations are the easiest thing for an opponent to say, and there is no one who is not able to refute them or respond in kind.


We assure you that the obligation of hijab in Islamic sharee‘ah is not because Islam accuses every woman who does not wear hijab of being immoral, or because all men will look at her as a focus for their wickedness and desires. Islamic societies raise people to be righteous and pious at all stages of upbringing, in the family and in the street, school, mosque and at university. The fact that there are many Islamic rulings that encourage good manners, decency, chastity and modesty is sufficient to deter many people from committing immoral actions.


But Islam does not only look at the majority of people; rather it pays attention to the fact that there is also a small percentage of evildoers, in order to protect the well-being of the majority and so that they will not be affected by the actions of the minority, that could spoil life for people and spread immorality if they are not stopped, just as if the authorities in Western countries left perverts, homosexuals and the patrons of strip clubs to act upon their desires and preferences in the streets or in public places, without any checks or measures – you can imagine what the consequences would be for those societies.


Here we will present to you a further quotation which says that attempts to remove women’s niqabs (face veils) and make them uncover their faces is the way of the evildoers.


In the Catholic edition of the book of Daniel, it says:


“Now Susanna was a woman of great refinement and beautiful in appearance.


As she was veiled, the scoundrels ordered her to be unveiled, so that they might feast their eyes on her beauty.”


Daniel 13:30-31 – New Revised Standard Edition


No comment!


Finally, we invite you to read studies on safety which keep an eye on statistics charting attacks on women, such as rape for example. You will find terrifying numbers. According to the organization RAINN (Rape, Abuse and Incest National Network), which is the largest American national organisation against sexual assault, every two minutes in America there is a sexual assault, which means that sexual assaults in one year number 207,754. This is a huge number which requires a serious effort to unearth the causes and look for the remedy. See:


http://bit.ly/1vxDf4U


If we were to look for statistics on marital infidelity, illegitimate children, broken families, and incest, we would find many problems that occurred as a result of women not dressing properly and overstepping the limits that Allah, may He be glorified and exalted, set for them in the Holy Qur’an, and which can be found even in the Old and New Testament as they exist in print form, as mentioned above.


We hope that you will think about what we have mentioned above, after which we may discuss further the main reasons that motivate Muslim women to wear hijab, and the psychological and social effects of that piece of cloth.


If you accept our logic in this debate, we welcome all questions and sincere requests to learn more about the religion of Islam.


And Allah knows best.

Islam Q&A


downsum.heliohost.org


‘Aashoora’ in Islam and previous religions, and refutation of the Raafidi claim that it is an innovation introduced by the Umayyads

Is the day of ‘Aashoora’ on which we fast not the correct day? Because I read that the correct day is the tenth day of the month of Tishrei in the Hebrew calendar, and that the Umayyad caliphs are the ones who changed it to the tenth day of the month of Muharram. Tishrei is the first month of the Jewish calendar.



Praise be to Allah.


-1-


The fast of ‘Aashoora’, which we observe on the tenth day of the month of Muharram, is the day on which Allah, may He be exalted, saved Moosa (peace be upon him), and it is the day on which some of the Jews in Madinah fasted because of that. It is also the day on which Allah commanded the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) to fast at first, then the obligation to do so was abrogated when fasting Ramadan was made obligatory, and fasting ‘Aashoora’ became mustahabb (encouraged but not obligatory).


The claim that some of the Umayyad caliphs are the ones who put this day in Muharram is a Raafidi claim. It is one of the many lies on which their religion is based and it is part of their belief to attribute all kinds of evil to the Umayyad caliphs and their era. If the Umayyads had wanted to fabricate false hadeeths and attribute them to Islam, they would have fabricated hadeeths that made the day of ‘Aashoora’ an Eid or festival! and not a day of fasting on which a person refrains from eating, drinking and sex. Fasting is an act of worship in which one refrains from permissible things, and Eid is a celebration in which one partakes of those things.


-2-


There is no doubt that the arrival of the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) in Madinah, when he migrated, occurred in Rabee‘ al-Awwal, not in Muharram. He saw some of the Jews fasting, and when he asked them about this fast of theirs, they said: It is the day on which Allah saved Moosa and those who were with him from drowning, so we fast on this day in gratitude to Allah.


It was narrated from Ibn ‘Abbaas (may Allah be pleased with him) that when the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) came to Madinah, he found them fasting on one day, i.e., ‘Aashoora’. They said: This is a great day; it is the day on which Allah saved Moosa and drowned the people of Pharaoh, so Moosa fasted in gratitude to Allah. He (the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him)) said: “I am closer to Moosa than they are.” So he fasted on that day and issued instructions to fast on that day.


Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 3216


When he saw the Jews doing that, was it when he first came to Madinah in Rabee‘ al-Awwal, or was it later on, in the month of Muharram?


There are two scholarly views; the more correct view is that his seeing them, that discussion and that command to fast occurred in Muharram, i.e., in the second year after he (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) arrived in Madinah, and from that we may conclude that the Jews followed the lunar calendar in commemorating that day.


Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah (may Allah have mercy on him) said:


Some people were confused by this and said: The Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) came to Madinah in the month of Rabee‘ al-Awwal, so how come Ibn ‘Abbaas said that when he came to Madinah, he found the Jews fasting on the day of ‘Aashoora’?


He (may Allah have mercy on him) said:


With regard to the first issue, which is that when he came to Madinah, he found them fasting on the day of ‘Aashoora’, this does not indicate that on the day of his arrival he found them observing that fast. He arrived on a Monday, the twelfth of Rabee‘ al-Awwal, but the first he knew of that was in the second year after his arrival in Madinah, and it did not happen when he was in Makkah. This is if the people of the Book worked out the date for this fast according to the lunar calendar.


Zaad al-Ma‘aad fi Hadiy Khayr al-‘Ibaad, 2/66


Al-Haafiz Ibn Hajar (may Allah have mercy on him) said:


The apparent meaning of the report was problematic to some people, because it appears to mean that when the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) arrived in Madinah, he found the Jews fasting the day of ‘Aashoora’, but he arrived in Madinah in Rabee‘ al-Awwal. The answer to that is that what is meant is that his first knowing of that and asking about it happened after he came to Madinah; he had no knowledge of that before he came there. What the hadeeth implies is that the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) came to Madinah and stayed until the day of ‘Aashoora’, when he found the Jews fasting on that day.


Fath al-Baari, 4/247


-3-


Was the calendar that the Jews used for that fast of theirs based on lunar or solar months?


If we say that it was based on lunar months, as stated above, then there is no problem, because the tenth of Muharram does not change every year. But if we say that it was based on solar months, then there is a problem, because this day will change every year (in relation to the lunar calendar) and will not always coincide with the tenth day of Muharram.


Ibn al-Qayyim (may Allah have mercy on him) mentioned this difference of opinion, and explained that he was of the view that their calendar was based on the solar months, so when the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) saw the Jews fasting on that day, it was in Rabee‘ al-Awwal when he first came to Madinah, and the date based on the solar calendar coincided with his arrival. With regard to the real day on which Allah saved Moosa, it was the tenth of Muharram, but because they followed a solar calendar, they got the day wrong.


Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah (may Allah have mercy on him) said:


If they followed the solar calendar, there is no confusion about the meaning of the hadeeth, and the day on which Allah saved Moosa was the day of ‘Ashoora’ in Muharram. Thus the people of the Book worked it out according to a solar calendar, and that coincided with the Prophet’s arrival in Madinah in Rabee‘ al-Awwal. The fast observed by the people of the Book was worked out according to a solar calendar, whereas the Muslims’ fast is according to the lunar calendar, as is their pilgrimage and all important occasions that are obligatory or recommended. The Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “We are closer to Moosa than you.” Thus it becomes clear that the Muslims should have a greater reason to venerate that day and work out when it is, and that they (the Jews) got it wrong, because they were using a solar calendar, as the Christians got it wrong with regard to their fast, when they put it in a particular season of the year, with the result that it could coincide with any lunar month.


Zaad al-Ma‘aad fi Hadiy Khayr al-‘Ibaad, 2/69, 70


Al-Haafiz Ibn Hajr mentioned this possible interpretation, and refuted it, and he refuted Ibn al-Qayyim’s favouring of this view.


He (may Allah have mercy on him) said:


Some of the later scholars said: It may be that their fast was worked out according to the solar calendar, which does not rule out the possibility of ‘Ashoora’ occurring in Rabee‘ al-Awwal, which would resolve the problem (of understanding the hadeeth) altogether. This was stated by Ibn al-Qayyim in al-Hadiy, where he said: The fast observed by the people of the Book was worked out according to a solar calendar. But I say: What he claimed of the problem being resolved is strange, because it leads to another problem, which is that the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) instructed the Muslims to fast ‘Ashoora’ according to the lunar calendar, and it is known how the Muslims fasted ‘Ashoora’ in all eras: it was in Muharram and not in any other month. Yes, I found a report in at-Tabaraani with a jayyid isnaad from Zayd ibn Thaabit who said: The day of ‘Ashoora’ is not the day people say it is; rather it is the day on which the cover of the Ka‘bah replaced and the Abyssinians play with swords and other tools of war, and was not fixed in one (lunar) month. The people used to go to So and so, the Jew, and ask him when it was; when he died they came to Zayd ibn Thaabit and asked him.


Based on this, the way to reconcile the reports is to say that it was originally like that (based on a solar calendar), then when the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) instructed the Muslims to fast ‘Ashoora’, he based it on the shar‘i ruling, which is to base it on the lunar calendar, and the Muslims followed that. But with regard to the claim that the people of the Book based their fast on a solar calendar, that is subject to further discussion. The Jews base their fast on a lunar calendar, and this is what we have seen them do. It may be that among them were some who followed a solar calendar, but there are none who do that now, just as those of whom Allah has told us that they said that ‘Uzayr was a son of God no longer exist. Exalted be Allah far above that.


Fath al-Baari, 7/267; see also 4/247


Elsewhere in Fath al-Baari, al-Haafiz Ibn Hajar says, commenting on the report of at-Tabaraani:


I came across something similar in al-Athaar al-Qadeemah by Abu’r-Rayhaan al-Bayrooni, and what he said, in brief, was: the ignorant among the Jews base their fasts and festivals on astronomical calculations, so their year is solar, not lunar. I say: Hence they need someone who has knowledge of such calculations, so that they can rely on him for that purpose.


Fath al-Baari, 4/247, 248


With regard to the report of Zayd ibn Thaabit that was mentioned by al-Haafiz Ibn Hajar (may Allah have mercy on him), and to which he responded, al-Haafiz Ibn Rajab (may Allah have mercy on him) has discussed its isnaad and text.


He (may Allah have mercy on him) said: This suggests that ‘Ashoora’ is not in Muharram; rather its date is worked out according to the solar calendar, as the people of the Book do, and this is contrary to the practice of the Muslims in earlier times. Ibn Abi’z-Zinnaad is not to be relied on in reports that are narrated only by him. He regarded the entire hadeeth as being from Zayd ibn Thaabit, and the latter part of it is not fit to be the words of Zayd, so perhaps that is the words of another narrator. And Allah knows best.


Lataa’if al-Ma‘aarif, p. 53


-4-


One may ask: how come the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) believe what the Jews said about the day of ‘Ashoora’ being the day on which Moosa and those who were with him were saved? This is what the Raafidis ask with evil ulterior motives, so as to cast aspersions on the hadeeths which encourage fasting on the day of ‘Ashoora’, and so as to support their claim that this is one of the innovations introduced by the Umayyads!


Al-Maaziri (may Allah have mercy on him) said concerning this issue and the response to it:


What the Jews say is not to be accepted (and taken as true), so it may be that the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) received revelation that confirmed what they said, or that he heard about that from many different sources, so that he concluded that it was true. End quote.


This was quoted by an-Nawawi in Sharh Muslim, 8/11


Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allah have mercy on him) said:


Even though this fast was not originally intended to do the same as the people of the Book, his saying, “We are closer to Moosa than you” is a confirmation of the prescription to observe this the fast, and explaining to the Jews that what you do of expressing love for Moosa, we do too, and we are closer to Moosa than you.


Iqtida’ as-Siraat al-Mustaqeem, p. 174


-5-


It should be noted that the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) liked to do the same as the people of the Book in matters concerning which he had not received any (divine) instructions; this included the fast of ‘Ashoora’.


It was narrated from ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbaas (may Allah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) used to let his hair fall over his foreheads; the mushrikeen used to part their hair and the people of the Book used to let their hair fall over their foreheads, and the Prophet (sa) liked to do the same as the people of the Book in matters concerning which he had not received any (divine) instructions. Then (later on) the Prophet (sa) parted his hair.


Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 3728


It is a sign of Imam al-Bukhaari’s understanding of the religion that he narrated this hadeeth after the two hadeeths of Abu Moosa and Ibn ‘Abbaas (may Allah be pleased with them) that speak of the fast of ‘Ashoora’.


Abu’l-‘Abbaas al-Qurtubi (may Allah have mercy on him) said:


The fact that the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) fasted it (‘Ashoora’) may have come under the heading of doing the same as them (the people of the Book) in that regard, because that was a good deed.


It may be said that Allah, may He be exalted, gave him permission to fast on that day, then when he came to Madinah, he found the Jews fasting on that day, so he asked them about what motivated them to observe that fast. They told him what Ibn ‘Abbaas mentioned, that it was a great day, on which Allah saved Moosa and his people, and drowned Pharaoh and his people, so Moosa fasted that day in gratitude, so we fast it too. The Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “We have more right and are closer to Moosa than you.” So at that time he fasted this day in Madinah and issued instructions to fast on that day, i.e., he made it obligatory to fast it and confirmed his instructions, to such an extent that they would make little children fast as well. The Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) adhered to that, as did his Companions, until the month of Ramadan was made obligatory and fasting the day of ‘Ashoora’ was abrogated. At that time he said: “Allah has not prescribed fasting this day for you.” Then he gave them the choice between fasting it or not fasting it, but the virtue attached to it remained in place, because he said “However I am fasting,” as it says in the hadeeth of Mu‘aawiyah.


Based on that, the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) did not fast the day of ‘Ashoora’ in emulation of the Jews, because he used to fast it before he came to them and before he knew anything about them; rather what happened was that he made it obligatory, in hope of softening the Jews’ hearts and win them over to Islam, just as was the reason for facing towards their qiblah. That period was the time when the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) liked to do the same as the people of the Book in matters that he had not been forbidden to do so.


Al-Mufhim lima Ashkala min Talkhees Kitaab Muslim, 3/191-192


Al-Haafiz Ibn Hajar (may Allah have mercy on him) said:


Whatever the case, he (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) did not fast it in emulation of them – i.e., the Jews – because he used to fast it before that, and that was at the time when the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) liked to do the same as the people of the Book in matters that he had not been forbidden to do so.


Fath al-Baari, 4/248


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We have seen above from the comments of the scholars that which indicates that the day of ‘Ashoora’ was known to Quraysh and to the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) in Makkah, and they used to venerate it and indeed fast it. The Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) fasted it with them, and on that day they used to put the new cover on the Ka‘bah. So how can anyone, after all this, falsely claim that ‘Ashoora’ is an Umayyad innovation at the time when it is clearly mentioned in the proven, saheeh hadeeths?!


It was narrated that ‘Aa’ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) said: Quraysh used to fast on ‘Ashoora’ during the Jaahiliyyah, and the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) used to fast on (that day) too. When he migrated to Madinah, he fasted this day and ordered that this fast be observed. When the month of Ramadaan was enjoined, he said: “Whoever wishes may fast on (this day) and whoever wishes may forsake it.”


Narrated by al-Bukhaari (1794); Muslim (1125).


‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated that the people of the Jaahiliyyah used to fast on the day of ‘Ashoora’, and the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) and the Muslims fasted it before Ramadaan was made obligatory. When the month of Ramadaan was made obligatory, the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “ ‘Ashoora’ is one of the days of Allah, so whoever wishes may fast it and whoever wishes may omit it.”


Narrated by Muslim (1126).


We have quoted the hadeeth of Ibn ‘Umar here so as to refute the Raafidis and those who followed them in their ignorance, who claim that ‘Aa’ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) was the only one who narrated the report about the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) fasting ‘Ashoora’ in Makkah.


Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr (may Allah have mercy on him) said:


‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated from the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) a report similar to that of ‘Aa’ishah concerning this matter. It was also narrated by ‘Ubaydullah ibn ‘Umar and Ayyoob, from Naafi‘, from Ibn ‘Umar that he said concerning the fast of ‘Ashoora’: The Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) fasted it and instructed (the people) to fast it.


At-Tamheed lima fi’l-Muwatta’ min al-Ma‘aani wa’l-Asaaneed, 7/207


An-Nawawi (may Allah have mercy on him) said:


What we conclude from these hadeeths is that during the Jaahiliyyah, the kuffaar of Quraysh and others, and the Jews, fasted on the day of ‘Ashoora’. Islam confirmed fasting on this day, then the ruling on fasting it became less emphatic.


Sharh Muslim, 8/9, 10


Abu’l-‘Abbaas al-Qurtubi (may Allah have mercy on him) said:


The words of ‘Aa’ishah (may Allah be pleased with her): “Quryash used to fast ‘Ashoora’ during the Jaahiliyyah,” indicate that fasting on this day was known to them to be prescribed and they were aware of its virtue. Perhaps they fasted on that day on the grounds that it was part of what was prescribed to Ibraaheem and Ismaa‘eel (blessings and peace of Allah be upon them), because they claimed to be following them and they attributed many of the rulings of Hajj and so on to them.


Al-Mufhim lima Ashkala min Talkhees Kitaab Muslim, 3/190, 191


For more information on the reasons why Quraysh fasted on that day, please see al-Mufassal fi Tareekh al-‘Arab qabl al-Islam, 11/339, 340


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Finally, what we have mentioned from the saheeh Sunnah about the virtues of ‘Ashoora’, and the fact that fasting it expiates for the sins of a year, and that its date is fixed, on the tenth of Muharram – all of that is not unique to Ahl as-Sunnah. Rather it is also mentioned in the main reference book of the Raafidis! So how can this be reconciled with their claims that what we have are israa’eeliyyat (stories from Jewish sources), that were taken from the Jews or invented by the Umayyads??


(i)


It was narrated from Abu ‘Abdullah (peace be upon him) from his father that ‘Ali (peace be upon him) said: Fast ‘Ashoora’ in this manner, on the ninth and the tenth, for it expiates the sins of a year.


Narrated by at-Toosi in Tahdheeb al-Ahkaam, 4/299; al-Istibsaar, 2/134; by al-Fayd al-Kaashaani in al-Waafi, 7/13; by al-Hurr al-‘Aamili in Wasaa’il ash-Shi‘ah, 7/337; by al-Buroojardi in Jaami‘ Ahaadeeth ash-Shi‘ah, 9/474, 475.


(ii)


It was narrated from Abu’l-Hasan (peace be upon him) that he said: The Messenger of Allah (blessings of Allah be upon him and his family) fasted the day of ‘Ashoora’.


Tahdheeb al-Ahkaam, 4/39; al-Istibsaar, 2/134; al-Waafi, 7/13; Wasaa’il ash-Shi‘ah, 7/337; also in Jaami‘ Ahaadeeth ash-Shi‘ah, 9/475


(iii)


It was narrated from Ja‘far, from his father (peace be upon him) that he said: Fasting the day of ‘Ashoora’ is an expiation for a year.


Tahdheeb al-Ahkaam,4/300; al-Istibsaar, 2/134; Jaami‘ Ahaadeeth ash-Shi‘ah, 9/475; al-Hadaa’iq an-Naadirah, 13/371; al-Waafi by al-Kaashaani,7/13; al-Hurr al-‘Aamili in Wasaa’il ash-Shi‘ah, 7/337


(iv)


It was narrated that ‘Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) said: Fast the day of ‘Ashoora’, the ninth and the tenth to be on the safe side, because that is expiation for the past year. If one of you did not know about it before he ate, then let him fast for the rest of the day.


This report was narrated by the Shi‘i hadeeth scholar Husayn an-Noori at-Tabrusi in Mustadrak al-Wasaa’il, 1/594; and by al-Buroojardi in Ahaadeeth ash-Shi‘ah, 9/475.


(v)


It was narrated that Ibn ‘Abbaas (may Allah be pleased with him) said: When you see the new moon of Muharram, then count (the days), and when the ninth day comes, then fast. I – that is, the narrator – said: Is that how Muhammad (peace be upon him and his family) used to fast? He said: Yes.


This report was narrated by the Shi‘i Radiy ad-Deen Abu’l-Qaasim ‘Ali ibn Moosa ibn Ja‘far ibn Tawoos in his book Iqbaal al-A‘maal, p. 554; and by al-Hurr al-‘Aamili in Wasaa’il ash-Shi‘ah, 7/347; and by an-Noori at-Tabrusi in Mustadrak al-Wasaa’il, 1/594; and in Jaami‘ Ahaadeeth ash-Shi‘ah, 9/475.


We have quoted these reports and their sources from the book Man qatala al-Husayn (radiy Allah ‘andhu)? by ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abd al-‘Azeez.


And Allah knows best.

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The virtue of fasting ‘Ashoora’

I heard that fasting the day of ‘Ashoora’ expiates for the past year, is this true?

Does it expiate for everything, even major sins? What is the reason for venerating this day?.



Praise be to Allah


Firstly:


Fasting the day of ‘Ashoora’ does expiate for the past year, because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Fasting the day of ‘Arafah I hope Allaah will expiate thereby for the year before it and the year after it, and fasting the day of ‘Ashoora’ I hope Allaah will expiate thereby for the year that came before it.” Narrated by Muslim, 1162. This is by the bounty that Allaah bestows upon us, whereby fasting one day expiates for the sins of a whole year. And Allaah is the Owner of great bounty.


The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to be very keen to make sure he fasted on the day of ‘Ashoora’ because of its great status. It was narrated that Ibn ‘Abbaas (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: I never saw the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) so keen to make sure he fasted any day and preferring it over another except this day, the day of ‘Ashoora’, and this month – meaning Ramadaan. Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 1867.


What is meant by being keen to make sure he fasted it is so as to earn its reward.


Secondly:


With regard to the reason why the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) fasted on the day of ‘Ashoora’ and urged the people to do likewise is mentioned in the hadeeth narrated by al-Bukhaari (1865) from Ibn ‘Abbaas (may Allaah be pleased with him), who said: The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) came to Madeenah and saw the Jews fasting on the day of ‘Ashoora’. He said, “What is this?” They said, “This is a good day, this is the day when Allaah saved the Children of Israel from their enemy and Moosa fasted on this day.” He said, “We are closer to Moosa than you.” So he fasted on this day and told the people to fast.


The words “this is a good day” – according to a version narrated by Muslim, “This is a great day when Allaah saved Moosa and his people and drowned Pharaoh and his people.”


The words “so Moosa fasted on this day” – Muslim added in his report: “In gratitude to Allaah, so that is we fast on this day.”


According to another version narrated by al-Bukhaari, “So we fast it out of respect for it.”


The words “and told the people to fast” – according to another version narrated by al-Bukhaari, “He said to his companions, ‘You are closer to Moosa than them, so fast this day.”


Thirdly:


The expiation of sins that is achieved by fasting ‘Ashoora’ refers to minor sins; with regard to major sins, they need separate repentance.


Al-Nawawi (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:


Fasting the day of ‘Arafaah expiates for all minor sins, in othr words this brings forgiveness for all sins except for major sins.


Then he said:


Fasting the day of ‘Arafaah is an expiation for two years, and the day of ‘Ashoora is an expiation for one year, and if a person’s Ameen coincides with the Ameen of the angels, his previous sins will be forgiven… Each of the things mentioned may bring expiation. If he does something that expiates for minor sins he will be expiated, and if there are no minor or major sins, it will be recorded for him as good deeds and he will rise in status thereby… If there is one or more major sins and no minor sins, we hope that it will reduce his major sins. Al-Majmoo’ Sharh al-Muhadhdhab, part 6.


Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: The expiation of purification, prayer, and fasting Ramadaan, ‘Arafah and ‘Ashoora’ applies to minor sins only. Al-Fataawa al-Kubra, part 5.

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Friday, August 22, 2014

Her husband reviles Islam and does not pray, but if she gets divorced from him, she will be forced to work and take off her hijab

I have been married for thirteen years to a husband who is thirty years older than me. The problem is that from the first day, we have not got on at all. I have thought of divorce, but I have three children. I was not religious before, but now – praise be to Allah – I never miss any prayer and I am raising my sons in Islam. Even though we are living in Belgium, praise be to Allah my children speak Arabic well. The problem is that my husband never prays, not even in Ramadan, and he has never entered a mosque in his life, and he always reviles Islam. By Allah, I am fed up with this life, but if I get divorced I will be forced to go out to work and take off my hijab. I have not let him be intimate with me for two months, since I read your fatwa on this website. Now we are living in one house, but it is as if he is not here; we do not speak and we do not sleep in the same room.



Praise be to Allah.


If your husband reviles Islam and does not pray, then it is not permissible for you to stay married to him, because the one who reviles Islam is a disbeliever according to scholarly consensus, and the one who does not pray out of laziness is also a disbeliever, according to the more correct of the two scholarly opinions.


If the marriage contract was done at a time when the husband was not praying or when he was reviling Islam, then the marriage was never valid in the first place.


If the status of disbelief came after the marriage contract, and the husband continued in his disbelief until your ‘iddah ended, then you are completely separated from him, and you are not permissible for him except with a new marriage contract, on condition that he repent and come back to Islam.


Based on that, it is not permissible for you to let him be intimate with you or to be alone with you; rather he is a non-mahram to you. Complete separation does not depend on him issuing a divorce (talaaq); you are not permissible for him whether he issues a divorce or not.


Now you have two options:


1. To live with your children in the same house that this husband is living in, on condition that you be separated completely from him and that there be no risk of intimacy occurring, and that you tell him that you are not permissible for him, and that intimacy with him when he is still behaving this way is haraam;


2. To become completely independent and to look for work and accommodation. Undoubtedly this is better and safer for you; perhaps when you look you will find permissible work where you will not be forced to take off your hijab.


If the problem is a choice between taking off the hijab and staying with this husband who is not permissible for you, and there is the fear that you may commit forbidden actions with him, then taking off the hijab is less serious, but we hope that you will not be forced to choose one of these two options and that Allah will bless your husband by enabling him to repent and mend his ways, or that you will find a job where you do not have to take off your hijab. There are many ways of earning a living, such as teaching children in your house or their house, or working as a seamstress or typist or translator, or working in an Islamic centre, even if you have to move to another city, or you could go back to a Muslim country.


Keep asking Allah may He be exalted, and beseeching Him, and do a lot of righteous deeds.


We ask Allah to grant you relief and to take away your worry and distress, and to protect you and your children.


And Allah knows best.

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Partner took money from the company without his partner’s knowledge

I was a partner with a friend of mine in a store and I noticed that he was cheating me, so in return I started cheating him. In other words, each of us was taking something without the knowledge of the other. How can I restore his rights to him, noting that I do not know the exact amount? Is it sufficient for me to ask him for forgiveness in general, i.e., please forgive me for that which Allah knows, and I will forgive you likewise? Is this sufficient to discharge what is owed?



Praise be to Allah.


Firstly:


Cheating or treachery is not a characteristic of the believers; rather it is a characteristic of the hypocrites. The Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “There are four things, whoever has all of them is a pure hypocrite and whoever has one of them has one of the characteristics of hypocrisy, until he gives it up: When he speaks he lies, when he is entrusted with something he betrays that trust…”


Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 33; Muslim, 88


According to the hadeeth of Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him), he said: “The adulterer is not a believer at the time when he is committing adultery; the thief is not a believer at the time when he is stealing; the one who misappropriates something from the war booty is not a believer at the time when he is misappropriating it, so beware, beware.” Narrated by Muslim, 86.


An-Nawawi (may Allah have mercy on him) said: “Misappropriating something from the war booty” is a kind of betrayal. End quote from Sharh Muslim, 2/45.


Betrayal is a blameworthy characteristic; the one who does it is not beloved to Allah, may He be exalted: “Verily, Allah does not like anyone who is a betrayer of his trust, and indulges in crime” [an-Nisa’ 4:107]. And there are other verses which indicate that this characteristic is hateful to Allah, may He be exalted, and contrary to sound human nature.


The author of az-Zawaajir regarded it as a major sin. He (may Allah have mercy on him) said:


The one hundred and eighty-seventh major sin is devouring wealth by means of corrupt transactions and all kinds of haraam earnings. Allah, may He be exalted, says (interpretation of the meaning): “O you who believe! Eat not up your property among yourselves unjustly” [an-Nisa’ 4:29]. Ibn ‘Abbaas said: This refers to what a person takes without giving something in return. That is because consuming another person’s wealth unjustly includes everything that is taken unjustly, whether it is by unlawful means such as plunder, treachery or theft, or by means of a plot and cheating, such as that which is taken by means of false contracts.


End quote from az-Zawaajir bi Iqtifraaf al-Kabaa’ir, 2/106


It was narrated that Ibn Mas‘ood (may Allah be pleased with him) said: The Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “Whoever deceives us is not one of us, and plots and deceit lead to the Fire.” Narrated by at-Tabaraani in al-Kabeer and as-Sagheer with a jayyid isnaad; and by Ibn Hibbaan in his Saheeh. See: Saheeh at-Targheeb wa’t-Tarheeb by Shaykh al-Albaani (may Allah have mercy on him), 2/159


Secondly:


You said: “I noticed that he was cheating me…”


Our response is that the basic principle concerning the Muslim is that he is honest, unless there is proof that he is otherwise. If there is no such proof, then the basic principle remains that he is honest and innocent of treachery.


Based on that, what you must do first of all is repent sincerely to Allah, may He be exalted;


Thirdly:


You must return the money that was taken unlawfully, and you will not have done all that is required of you except by returning it, unless you tell him what has happened, and he pardons you, in which case it does not matter. If he accepts what you say about having taken some of the money, without asking how much you took, and forgives you, that is good enough.


some of the money, without asking him to tell you how much it was and??


You should also pardon him in the same manner, without asking him how much he took.


You can also return the money without telling him; if you do not know how much it was then you have to do your best to work it out and give what you think most likely is the amount you took. For more information, please see the answer to question no. 40019


And Allah knows best.

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How can the Qur’an be a miracle for the non-Arabs when it is Arabic and they do not know Arabic?

The Qur’an came as a miracle from Allah to His Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him), as it says in the verses of the Qur’an and in the hadeeth of al-Bukhaari, no. 7274. Hence I want to ask: How can the Qur’an be a miracle for the non-Arabs who do not know Arabic, and who formed the majority of inhabitants of the world at that time?



Praise be to Allah.


Firstly:


The hadeeth referred to in the question is as follows:


It was narrated from Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “There is not a single Prophet who was not given signs so that the people would believed in him because of them. What I have been given is a Revelation that Allah has revealed to me, and I hope that I will be the one with the most followers on the Day of Resurrection.”


Narrated by al-Bukhaari (1044) and Muslim (152).


Al-Haafiz Ibn Hajar (may Allah have mercy on him) said: There are several possible interpretations of the hadeeth:


It was said that what is meant is that the miracles of the Prophets have come to an end with the end of their time, and no one witnessed them except those who were present, but the miracle of the Qur’an is ongoing and will continue until the Day of Resurrection. It is extraordinary in its style and eloquence, and in what it foretold of future events of the unseen, so that no era passed except something appeared that the Qur’an said would come to pass, which proves the truthfulness of its claim. This is the strongest of the interpretations of the hadeeth.


It was also said that what is meant is that the miracles of the past were visible and could be seen with the eyes, such as the she-camel of Saalih and the staff of Moosa, whereas the miracle of the Qur’an may be comprehended with the intellect, so the number of those who followed the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) because of it were more numerous, since that which can be seen with the eyes comes to an end when the looking ends, whereas that which may be comprehended with the intellect will continue to be understood by those who come after the first generations.


Fath al-Baari, 9/70


Secondly:


The answer to the question, How can the Qur’an be a miracle for the unlettered non-Arabs who formed the majority of inhabitants of the world at that time? is as follows:


it is known that the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) was sent among the Arabs, who were distinguished by their great eloquence and beautiful style in speech, so Allah, may He be exalted, made the miracle or sign of the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) of the same nature of that by which his people were distinguished, so that the miracle and challenge would be more effective, just as the sign of Moosa (peace be upon him) was his staff or stick, with which he overcame the deceit of the sorcerers, and the sign of ‘Eesa (peace be upon him) was the healing of those who had been born blind and of the lepers, because knowledge of medicine was widespread at his time.


With regard to the non-Arabs, in the past and at present, and how the Qur’an may be a miracle for them, and whether they were included in its challenge, this may be explained from several angles:


-1-


Not all Arabs have great knowledge of the Arabic language and its style and eloquence, just as not all non-Arabs are ignorant of the Arabic language. Hence it is known that the miracle and the challenge is addressed to all those who know Arabic, whether they learned it from birth, like the Arabs, or they learned it later on, like the non-Arabs. Thus it is clear that the case of the non-Arabs is like that of Arabs who have no knowledge of their language.


Abu ‘Abdullah al-Qurtubi (may Allah have mercy on him) said:


If it is said: “With regard to reviving the dead, turning the staff into a snake and other, similar miracles, they are very clear and no one who observes that will have any doubt about it. It will be clear to all rational people and no doubt will remain; rather they will all reach a definitive conclusion after seeing that. But this is not the case with regard to your Prophet’s claim of the miraculous nature of the Qur’an, because not everyone will be able to understand its miraculous nature; rather it is only you (Arabs) who can see that, and this applies only to those Arabs who have a good command of the language, as you claim. As for those who do not have a good command of the language, or non-Arabs who do not understand Arabic, they will not understand its miraculous nature. If a non-Arab is asked to speak a word of Arabic, he will not be able to do so, so the fact that he is not able to do that, does not prove that what you are challenging him with is true. Similarly, if an Arab who does not have a good command of Arabic is asked to speak proper Arabic, he will not be able to do so; therefore for him the Qur’an is not miraculous.”


The answer to that is:


We will explain, insha Allah, some aspects of its miraculous nature, of which there are many, some of which can be understood by ordinary people, town dwellers and desert dwellers alike, and these aspects are as clear as turning the staff into a snake and raising the dead. If we assume, for the sake of argument, that it is only miraculous with regard to its eloquence and style, which is different to the style of the speech of ordinary people, then we say that the miraculous nature of the Qur’an, raising the dead and turning the staff into a snake are not going to be understood equally or at the same time by rational people. Rather the one who appreciates the miraculous nature of any miracle is the one who knows how and why that thing is a miracle, as he knows that it is something that cannot be achieved by human tricks and cannot be reached by discovering some material with special characteristics.


It may not be far-fetched to say that a specious argument may be developed in the mind of one who is ignorant of medicine or magic, which prevents him from seeing the miracle; therefore he may say: Perhaps Moosa had some extra knowledge of magic that the sorcerers did not know and had never learned, and by the same token, perhaps ‘Eesa had found some stones with special qualities or some other material with special qualities by means of which he was able to achieve what he achieved. Such a specious argument can only develop in the mind of one who is ignorant of medicine and magic. As for the one who has any knowledge of medicine or magic, no such confusion will arise in his mind, because he realises, on the basis of his knowledge and experience, that the miracle performed by a prophet is something that cannot be achieved by means of professional tricks or finding some materials with special characteristics; rather it is a miracle that happens by the will of the Creator of the universe, by means of which He intended to give proof of the authenticity of the one who called people to Him. Thus we conclude that understanding of the miraculous nature of raising the dead and turning the staff into a snake was first reached by the sorcerers and magicians, and it may not have been understood by many of the fools who were ignorant of medicine and magic. The same may be said of the miraculous nature of the Qur’an, without any differences: understanding of it came to those who had knowledge of the Arabic language and would see, based on their knowledge of Arabic, the difference between the Qur’an and regular Arabic speech. Thus they would conclude that it was not within the ability of the Arabs to say things in the same style. If the eloquent Arabs and those who were well versed in Arabic were unable to match it, then others are more unlikely to be able to do so. As we say, if the doctors are unable to raise the dead and heal those who were born blind and lepers, people other than doctors are more unlikely to be able to do so; and if the sorcerers were unable to turn a stick into a snake, then people other than sorcerers are more unlikely to be able to do so.


The statement that matching the Qur’an is something that the Arabs are not able to do, and non-Arabs are not involved in this challenge, is similar to saying that only doctors are unable to raise the dead, and people other than doctors are not involved in this challenge, or saying that only sorcerers are unable to turn a stick into a snake, and people other than sorcerers are not involved in this challenge. As the challenge in the other two cases (raising the dead and turning the stick into a snake) is expected to be undertaken by those who have the relevant skills, the same applies in the case of the Qur’an. Rather, in the case of the Qur’anic miracle, it has aspects that we will discuss which everyone can understand, whether he is a non-Arab or an Arab, a Magian or a Jew or Christian. We will discuss it below, in sha Allah.


So we may conclude from what we have said that Muhammad (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) brought the Qur’an, challenged people with it and it is a miracle, and anyone who brings a miracle and challenges others with it is truthful. Therefore the certain conclusion is that Muhammad (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) is true.


Al-I‘laam bima fi Deen an-Nasaarah min al-Fasaad wa’l-Awhaam wa Izhaar Mahaasin al-Islam, p. 326


-2-


Some of the scholars said that the miracle in the Book of Allah, may He be exalted, is not only in the wording, but also the meanings, the sequence of meanings and the way in which ideas are presented. So the miracle and challenge for the Arabs has to do with the style, and for others it has to do with the fact that no one among the speakers of any other language is able to come up with something similar to the Qur’an in any other language.


Al-Jassaas (may Allah have mercy on him) said:


The words of Allah, may He be exalted, (interpretation of the meaning): “Say: ‘If mankind and the jinns were together to produce the like of this Qur’an, they could not produce the like thereof, even if they helped one another’” [al-Isra’ 17:88] prove the miraculous nature of the Qur’an. Some people say that its miracle is in the wording and style on the one hand, and in the meanings and the sequence in which ideas are presented, on the other hand. They quote as evidence for that the fact that in this verse the Qur’an challenges both the Arabs and the non-Arabs, the jinn and humans. It is well-known that the non-Arabs could not be challenged on the aspect of the wording and style, therefore the challenge for them should have to do with the meanings and the sequence in which ideas are presented.


Some of the scholars insist that its miraculous nature is limited to its style and eloquence of expression. They say: The miraculous nature of the Qur’an has many aspects: its beautiful style, its eloquent and concise wording, the way in which it combines many meanings in few words, in addition to the fact that it is completely free of any words that sound ineloquent or any ideas or meanings that are out of place, as well as being free of any contradictions. All of it, from beginning to end, is consistent, as described above. The words of people, on the other hand, especially if they speak at length, cannot be free of cheap words, corrupt meanings and contradictions. What we have mentioned of the flaws in people’s speech are present in the speech of people of all languages; it does not apply only to those who speak Arabic. Thus it is possible that the challenge of the Qur’an may be applicable to the non-Arabs in that way: challenging them to bring something that is free of the faults and flaws referred to above, because saying things in an eloquent manner is not something that is limited only to Arabic, to the exclusion of other languages, even though the Arabic language is the most eloquent. We know that the Qur’an is the pinnacle of eloquence, so it is possible that the challenge to the non-Arabs is by way of challenging them to produce words at the highest level of eloquence in their own languages.


Ahkaam al-Qur’an, 5/34, 35


-3-


There are many aspects to the miraculous nature of the Book of Allah; it is not limited to style and eloquence only. Hence some of the scholars said that the miraculous nature of the Book of Allah which all people, not only the Arabs, may understand, and that Allah’s challenge to produce something like it, is only applicable to these aspects. Hence Allah issued this challenge to the jinn as well as to mankind, to produce something like this Qur’an. One of these aspects is that it foretold events that would happen and foretold the time at which they would happen, for example.


Abu ‘Abdullah al-Qurtubi (may Allah have mercy on him) said:


… The third aspect of the miraculous nature of the Qur’an is what it includes of news of the future before any human even knew anything about it, and foretelling events before they happened. This is something that cannot be known except via the truthful ones who are conveying from Allah, may He be exalted. We will refer to some events just to prove this point in brief, with no need for a lengthy discussion.


For example, Allah, may He be exalted, said (interpretation of the meaning):


“Certainly, you shall enter Al-Masjid al-Haram; if Allah wills, secure, (some) having your heads shaved, and (some) having your hair cut short, having no fear”


[Muhammad 47:27].


This verse is one of the clearest miracles of the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him). Allah, may He be exalted, promised him that He would cause him to enter al-Masjid al-Haraam, him and his people, in safety, and that He would grant them the conquest of Makkah in the best state. They kept waiting for that until its time came and Allah fulfilled His promise. Then they entered it as He had promised, and conquered it as they had been foretold.


Al-I‘laam bima fi Deen an-Nasaarah min al-Fasaad wa’l-Awhaam wa Izhaar Mahaasin al-Islam, p. 337


There are other opinions too, but what we have quoted above is sufficient, and it is the strongest view concerning this matter.


To sum up: the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) was an Arab and the Qur’an is Arabic. He was sent to eloquent, well-spoken Arabs, hence his greatest miracle was the Book of Allah, may He be exalted. They were unable to match its wording, phrases, style and eloquence. Thus the rational people among the eloquent and well-spoken realised that this was not the words of a human being, hence they believed.


As for those Arabs who were not eloquent or well spoken, and the non-Arabs, what is to be mentioned to them is the meanings and rulings of the Qur’an, and those aspects of its miraculous nature that they are able to understand. Thus they may develop conviction based on the knowledge and understanding that this is not the words of a human being. Hence many of the non-Arabs became Muslim because of coming across the meaning of a verse. In such cases, this non-Arab could not understand its eloquence and style, but its meaning is the reason why he became Muslim. Many such stories have been passed down by numerous narrators, and in our own time there are many more. Those people only became Muslim after they learned what there is in these verses that no human being could have produced, and that at the time of the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) there was no technology and no scientific discoveries that could enable him to tell people about these matters. Thus they accepted that this was revelation from heaven, so they became Muslim. Hence we can see the extent to which the hadeeth the questioner referred to is applicable to real facts.


And Allah knows best.

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Should he let his siblings use his private internet connection?

If a person has internet in his house, and his siblings – both male and female – use the internet, and he does not know what purpose they are using it for, because they are not religiously committed and they may be using it for haraam things, such as chatting between the sexes, or sharing songs, is there any sin on him for that? Does he have to stop them using it?



Praise be to Allah.


If you think it most likely that they will use it in haraam ways, it is not permissible for you to allow them to do that, because that comes under the heading of helping in sin, and Allah, may He be exalted, says (interpretation of the meaning):


“Help you one another in Al‑Birr and At‑Taqwa (virtue, righteousness and piety); but do not help one another in sin and transgression. And fear Allah. Verily, Allah is Severe in punishment”


[al-Maa’idah 5:2].


What we advise you to do is put accessibility to the internet solely under your control, so as to avoid any doubt and to have peace of mind and not worry about being responsible for anyone else. It is rare for a person to use the internet without falling into objectionable types of use.




And Allah knows best.

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Ruling on offering congratulations at the beginning of the Hijri year

What is the ruling on offering congratulations on the occasion of the Hijri new year and saying “Kull ‘aam wa antum bi khayr” or praying for blessing, or sending a card with best wishes for blessings in the new year?



Praise be to Allah


Shaykh Muhammad ibn Saalih al-‘Uthaymeen (may Allaah have mercy on him) was asked: What is the ruling on congratulating people on the occasion of the Hijri new year, and how should one reply to a person who offers congratulations?


He replied:


If someone offers you congratulations, then respond to him, but do not initiate such greetings. This is the correct view concerning this matter. So if a person says to you, for example, “Happy New Year”, then you can say, “May Allaah make it a good and blessed year for you.” But you should not initiate such a greeting, because I do not know of any report that the salaf [early generations of Islam] congratulated one another on the occasion of the new year, rather the salaf did not regard the first of Muharram as the first day of the new year until the caliphate of ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab (may Allaah be pleased with him.


Shaykh ‘Abd al-Kareem al-Khudayr said concerning offering congratulations on the occasion of the hijri new year:


Praying for another Muslim in general terms, in phrases that are not meant as a kind of ritual on special occasions such as Eid, is acceptable, especially if what is meant by this greeting is friendship and to show a friendly face to one’s fellow Muslim. Imaam Ahmad (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: “I do not initiate the greeting but if someone greets me I return the greeting, because responding to the greeting is obligatory. But being the first to offer congratulations is neither Sunnah nor forbidden.

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The virtue of observing a lot of naafil fasts in the month of Muharram

Is it Sunnah to observe a lot of naafil [supererogatory] fasts in the month of Muharram? Is there anything special about this month compared with other months?.



Praise be to Allah


The month of Muharram is the first month of the Arabic year, and it is one of the four sacred months of Allaah. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):


“Verily, the number of months with Allaah is twelve months (in a year), so was it ordained by Allaah on the Day when He created the heavens and the earth; of them four are Sacred (i.e. the 1st, the 7th, the 11th and the 12th months of the Islamic calendar). That is the right religion, so wrong not yourselves therein”


[al-Tawbah 9:36]


al-Bukhaari (3167) and Muslim (1679) narrated from Abu Bakrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “The division of time has turned to its original form which was current the day Allaah created the heavens and earth. The year consists of twelve months of which four are sacred: three consecutive months, Dhu’l-Qa’dah, Dhu’l-Hijjah and Muharram, and Rajab of Mudar which comes between Jumada and Sha’baan.”


It was proven from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) that the best fasting after Ramadaan is fasting in the month of Muharram. It was narrated that Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “The best fasting after Ramadaan is the month of Allaah Muharram, and the best prayer after the obligatory prayer is prayer at night.” Narrated by Muslim, 1163.


With regard to the phrase “the month of Allaah”, mentioning the month in conjunction with Allaah is a sign of its great status. Al-Qaari said: it seems that what is meant is all of the month of Muharram.


But it was proven that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) did not fast any month in full apart from Ramadaan, so this hadeeth is to be understood as meaning that it is it is encouraged to fast a lot in the month of Muharram, not to fast the whole month.


And Allaah knows best.

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His mother mistreats his wife and her family

My wife is suffering because of my mother’s mistreatment of her; she says hurtful words to her and treats her badly with no justification other than thinking badly of her, and this mistreatment even extends to my wife’s family. My mother has started to make inappropriate and untrue accusations against my wife to my wife’s family, so my wife has cut off all ties with my mother. Please note that my wife has been patient in putting up with my mother’s mistreatment of her forseveral years, until the last straw was my mother’s saying bad things about my wife’s family. I maintain contact with my mother by visiting her and calling her on the phone, and I treat her kindly. However, my mother did not expect this relationship to be cut off, and now she blames me for allowing my wife to cut off this relationship and has now made her approval of me conditional upon my wife resuming the relationship with her, and she says that she will never be pleased with me until the Day of Judgement if I do not make my wife start visiting her again, even though I do not want to put pressure on my wife, and I am leaving the choice up to her. My mother has started to pray against me without me having done anything wrong. My question is: is there anything haraam in my wife’s cutting off the relationship with my mother, or what is the ruling on that? The second question is: does my mother have the right to make her approval of me conditional upon my wife resuming the relationship with her and starting to visit her again? Please note that I still offer supplication for her when I pray and I give in charity on her behalf. The third question is: if my wife insists on her decision to cut off ties, will there be any sin on me as a result of my mother’s being angry with me? I hope that you can advise me, and may Allah reward you.



Praise be to Allah.


Firstly:


Undoubtedly these kind of family problems and annoyances are things that affect one’s life and occupy one’s thoughts, but with a little wisdom, proper conduct, more rational thinking, adhering to the path of fairness and patience for the sake of pleasing the one who has the greatest rights over you – namely your mother – and pleasing the one whom you love, the source of your comfort and the mother of your children – namely your wife – we can resolve the problem and handle the matter in the best manner possible.


Secondly:


We must – may Allah guide us and you aright – inform each party of the rights of the other. The mother must understand that her son’s wife has rights that have been ordained by Allah and taught by the Messenger of Allah; the wife must understand that the mother has rights ordained by Allah and affirmed by the Messenger of Allah.


Moreover, each of them must understand that when Allah ordained rights for people, He forbade mistreatment and enmity, and He forbade transgressing the limits that He has set for His slaves. So what we must do is adhere to those limits and no one who has been given rights should transgress the limits in order to transgress against the rights of anyone else.


Thirdly:


We should explain the standard of fairness that has been outlined in Islam, which is that a person’s faith is not truly complete until he loves for his brother what he loves for himself, and until he hates for his brother what he hates for himself.


So we ask the mother: would you accept for anyone – no matter who he is – to direct hurtful words towards you, or to mistreat you by behaving in an inappropriate manner, or to say bad things about your family, and so on?


We ask the wife: would you be happy for my mother to be angry with me and not be pleased, and to pray against me instead of praying for me? Would you like that for yourself, no matter what the reasons?


By presenting the case in such a manner, discussing it with two people you care for and who you do not want to make angry with you, you can persuade them, without putting the one who is in the wrong – especially your mother – on the spot and accusing her of transgression and hostility, or speaking ill of her and her actions, which may make matters more complicated and difficult to resolve. Rather you can achieve that with wisdom and choosing your words carefully.


Then you should speak to your wife, encouraging her to pardon and overlook.


Allah, may He be exalted, says (interpretation of the meaning):


“The good deed and the evil deed cannot be equal. Repel (the evil) with one which is better (i.e. Allah ordered the faithful believers to be patient at the time of anger, and to excuse those who treat them badly), then verily! he, between whom and you there was enmity, (will become) as though he was a close friend”


[Fussilat 41:34].


The Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “No one forgives, but Allah increases him in honour.” Narrated by Muslim, 2588.


According to another hadeeth: “No one is wronged and bears it with patience but Allah will increase him in honour.” Narrated by at-Tirmidhi, 2325; classed as saheeh by al-Albaani.


Explain to her that forgiving is more beloved and more pleasing to Allah, and tell her: “You will only be forgiving the most beloved of people to be, namely my mother, and that will only increase you in dearness to me.”


Fourthly:


It is not permissible for your wife to cut off her relationship with your mother by shunning her and boycotting her, because it is not permissible for a Muslim to shun his brother for more than three days, as is well known. It is narrated in a saheeh report that the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “Whoever forsakes his brother for a year, it is as if he shed his blood.” Narrated by Abu Dawood, 4915;classed as saheeh by al-Albaani.


He also said: “It is not permissible for a Muslim to shun another Muslim for more than three days, because they will be drifting away from the path of truth so long as they are shunning one another. Whichever of them is first to reach out to his brother, his doing so will be an expiation for him. If he greets him and he (the other one) does not respond, the angels will return his greeting and the shaytaan will respond to the other one. If they both die in that state, neither of them will ever enter Paradise.”


Narrated by Ahmad, 15824; classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in as-Saheehah, 1246


But if mixing with one another will always lead to annoyance for the wife, and insults to her family, then this is something that it is not permissible for the mother to do, and it is not permissible for you to keep quiet about it, because people’s rights should be respected and if anyone harms a Muslim with no justification, the score will be settled on the Day of Resurrection.


There is a well-known report about the bankrupt person who will come on the Day of Resurrection with prayer, fasting and zakaah to his credit, but he will come having insulted this one, reviled that one, devoured the wealth of this one, shed the blood of that one and beaten another one. So each of them will be given some of his hasanaat, and if his hasanaat run out before what he owes has been paid off, some of their bad deeds will be taken and added to his burden, then he will be thrown into the Fire.


So it is essential to alert your mother to this great danger and to advise her concerning that, in a gentle manner, and remind her to fear Allah.


Based on that, if your mother persists in treating your wife in this manner, then the right thing to do is not to enable her to do that, by preventing your wife from going to see her, and there will be no blame on your wife in that case if she does not mix with her, visit her or go to see her. This is not obligatory upon her in the first place; rather what is obligatory is not to shun a person without any shar‘i justification that would make doing so permissible.


If we assume that your wife overlooks and forgives her, and gives up her own rights, then what about the rights of her family? What have they done wrong to deserve this criticism and mistreatment without any error or sin on their part?


But if it so happens that your wife and your mother meet in some place, then your wife has to greet her with salaam if she meets her; the better of the two will be the one who is first to greet the other. If your mother speaks to her or greets her with salaam, then she must return her greeting.


In that case it will not matter if your mother threatens to pray against you and to be displeased with you, because Allah has forbidden injustice to Himself and has made it haraam among people, and He has stated that He does not love those who are unjust or wrong others, as He, may He be exalted, says (interpretation of the meaning):


“O you who believe! Stand out firmly for Allah and be just witnesses and let not the enmity and hatred of others make you avoid justice. Be just: that is nearer to piety”


[al-Maa’idah 5:8].


What is meant is: stand out firmly for Allah and be just in word and deed, and be like that towards both relatives and strangers, friends and enemies.


Do not let the hatred of some people cause you to treat them unfairly; rather, just as you would testify in favour of your friend, you should also testify against him (if need be), and just as you would testify against your enemy, you should also testify in his favour; even if he is a disbeliever or innovator, it is obligatory to treat him fairly.


See: Tafseer as-Sa‘di, p. 224


Moreover, just as it is not permissible to let hatred of some people make you fail to be fair, it is not permissible to let love of others make you fail to be fair; rather you should be fair in all cases.


There is no blame on you for any of this, if you have tried to bring about reconciliation as much as you can, but were unable to achieve that. If your mother threatens to pray against you and so on, Allah, may He be exalted, will not answer the supplication of one who prays wrongfully or on the basis of severing ties of kinship.


But it is essential that you take care to treat her properly and be patient in putting up with any unpleasantness on her part in all situations.


And Allah is the Guide to the straight path.




Note:


With regard to the words of the questioner: “I still offer supplication for her when I pray and I give in charity on her behalf”, offering supplication for her is a good deed and comes under the heading of honouring her and treating her kindly. But giving charity on her behalf when she is still alive is something that is not known from the early generations; rather what is known is giving charity on behalf of one who has passed away. Al-Bukhaari (2760) and Muslim (1004) narrated from ‘Aa’ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) that a man said to the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him): My mother died suddenly and did not leave a will. I think that if she had been able to speak, she would have given charity. Can I give charity on her behalf? He said: “Yes, give charity on her behalf.”


An-Nawawi said:


This hadeeth indicates that giving charity on behalf of the deceased will benefit the deceased and the reward for it will reach him. There is scholarly consensus on this point. End quote.


So what is prescribed is to focus on serving her, and praying for her in her absence, upholding ties with her by giving money and food, and so on, without giving charity on her behalf, because there is no evidence that doing so is prescribed (when she is still alive), as far as we know.


And Allah knows best.

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Her mother wants her to marry one suitor, but her father thinks that he is not suitable; what should she do?

My Mum wants me to get married to someone who my Father thinks isnt good for me and as you know men are the head of the family and I want my dad to choose my life-partner than my mum so is this right?



Praise be to Allah.


Allah, may He be exalted, has given authority in the matter of marriage to the man, so it is not permissible for a woman to arrange a marriage for herself or for anyone else; rather her marriage must be arranged by a wali or guardian. Women have nothing to do with guardianship in marriage; rather that is only for men, and is basically for the father, who takes precedence over others in arranging the marriages of his daughters.


Imam Abu Bakr al-Qaffaal ash-Shaashi (may Allah have mercy on him) said:


The reason being – and Allah knows best –that women have a natural inclination towards men and they are not able to judge people well, and that could lead them to choose one who is not an appropriate choice (for marriage),therefore Allah entrusted the woman’s case, with regard to her marriage, to her father. If the matter had been entrusted to her, there would be the fear that she might marry someone who is not compatible with her.


End quote from Mahaasin ash-Sharee‘ah, 247. See also the answer to question no. 2127


If the father has the right to guardianship in the case of marriage, and the marriage contract cannot be done without him, then it is only logical that his opinion should take precedence in the matter of choosing a husband for his daughter, especially when he in most cases will be better able to judge their character, thus he will be able to find out about the suitor and reach the right conclusion.


But that does not mean that the mother has no say in choosing a husband for her daughter; rather she should be consulted about the matter and her opinion should be taken into consideration, because perhaps it may be correct and some things may be apparent to her that are not apparent to her husband.


To sum up:


The basic principle is that the father’s opinion and choice takes precedence over that of the mother, but that does not mean that the mother’s opinion should be ignored altogether; rather it should be taken into consideration so so that she does not feel left out and to convince her of the father’s point of view, and that he is responsible with regard to their daughter’s marriage. Thus the choice is up to your father, especially if he is known to be of sound reasoning, but he should not make her feel left out; rather he should respect her opinion.


And Allah knows best.

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Thursday, August 21, 2014

He works as a nurse, which means that he may do some things that are not acceptable according to sharee‘ah

What is the permissibility of being a male nurse in a non muslim country? Im currently studying to become a nurse and I'm worried about several things concerning this career. Often times we need to feed patients ( maybe even female patients) food that may contain pork other haram foodstuff. Sometimes the patients are olso served alcohol. We may also need wash the (female) patients and change their clothes. Also in this country this is a predominantly femele occupation. In my current practical training there only one other male. Only two of the patients are male. Also all of my teachers and majority of my classmates are female. We may also have to bring them activity which may include (religious) music and non-muslim religious activities. I also have to have a practical training period concerning female health and maternity care where the patients will be female. Also in elderly care 2/3 of the patients are female. I don't think it is possible to work in this field and uphold all the religious teachings strictly and work in this field at the same time. What is the ruling on this matter? Could reply swiftly to my guestion so I can change my field of study if it is necessary.



Praise be to Allah.


Firstly:


The basic principle is that medical treatment of women should be done by female doctors and nurses; if there are no female doctors or nurses, it is permissible for them to be treated by a man, but that should be in accordance with Islamic guidelines


Secondly:


Free mixing between men and women is a great evil that leads to serious negative consequences in both religious and worldly terms. Similarly, work that involves serving pork and haraam drinks to people is not permissible, because it comes under the heading of cooperating in sin and transgression.


Thirdly:


According to what the questioner mentioned in his question, this work is haraam and is not permissible, for the following reasons:


1. haraam mixing between men and women in school and work


2. offering pork and haraam drinks to patients


3. uncovering of ‘awrahs and touching them unnecessarily, as there are women around who can do these tasks


4. taking part in activities that include singing, music and mixing


5. treating women and taking care of them when there are female nurses who could do that.


What you must do is look for work that is appropriate for you, far removed from things that are contrary to Islam, and choose the best and the next best, according to what you can do.


For information on some of the Islamic rulings that doctors and their helpers must know, please see the answer to question no. 105384


And Allah knows best.

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Concerning Wishing for Death Due to Some Harm/Difficulty that Has Come

Question: I have faced so many difficulties in my life that it has made me hate this life. Every time I turned to Allah, I pleaded for Him to take my life away from me at the earliest. This is my wish until now as I do not see any solutions to my problems except death; it is the only thing that can save me from this punishment. Is this behavior forbidden for me?

Response by Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (rahimahullaah):


When a person wishes for death because of something that has afflicted him, he is doing something that the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam) has prohibited. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam) said:


«None of you should hope for death because of some harm that has come to him. If he has wish such, he should say, ‘O Allah, give me life if You know that life is better for me. And give me death if You know that death is better for me.»


Therefore, it is not allowed for anyone to wish for death because of some harm, hardship or difficulty that has come to him. In fact, he should have patience and expect a reward from Allah for what he is passing through. He should also wait for relief to come, as the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam) has said:


«Know that victory comes with patience, relief with distress and ease with hardship».


The one who is afflicted with any affliction should know that those afflictions expiate some of the sins that he has committed. No believer is afflicted with any kind of worry, grief or pain except that Allah expiates sins for him due to that, even the pricking of a thorn.


When the person has patience and expects rewards from Allah, he reaches the stage of being among the patient. This stage is a very elevated stage. Allah has stated about its inhabitants:


And give glad tidings to the patient. Who, when afflicted with calamity, say, ‘Truly, to Allaah we belong and, truly, to Him we shall return [Surah al-Baqarah (2) : 155-156]


The woman in the question feels that there is no solution for her problems except death. I believe that this is a mistaken view. Death does not solve any problems. In fact, the situation of adversity may get even worse.


How many humans die while being afflicted with pain and problems but they had been wronging themselves and did not give their sins and repent to Allah. Then his death is just a quicker coming of his punishment.


If he remained alive, perhaps Allah would have guide him to repentance, seeking forgiveness, patience, facing the problem and expecting relief. This all would have been good for him.


Therefore, you, the questioner, must be patient and expect relief from Allah. Allah says in His book:


So, verily, with the hardship there is relief. Verily, with the hardship, there is relief [Surah ash-Sharh (94) : 5-6]


And the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam) stated, in an authentic narration:


«Know that victory comes with patience, relief with distress and ease with hardship.»


Source: Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen, Fataawa al-Mar’ah, Published: 18 October 1999


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His parents think that he does not offer the naafil prayers, but he prays them in secret for fear of showing off. Should he tell them about that?

My parents usually scold me whenever i do not pray the optional prayers after the fardh prayer. I actually pray these prayers at home after returning from masjid and my parents think i dont pray because i return faster from the masjid after i get scoldings. When i am scolded i obediently listen but do not reply because i feel when i will tell them that i do a better thing by praying the optional prayer at home, i will show off which is haraam. I am also aware that they will be pleased by hearing that i do a better thing. Kindly suggest on whether i should continue as i am doing (leave them dissapointed) or should i inform them that i do pray at home (may be a show off).



Praise be to Allah.


Firstly:


Concealing acts of worship and not doing them openly is better than doing them openly and announcing them. Allah, may He be exalted, says (interpretation of the meaning):


“If you disclose your Sadaqat (alms-giving), it is well, but if you conceal it, and give it to the poor, that is better for you. (Allah) will forgive you some of your sins. And Allah is Well-Acquainted with what you do”


[al-Baqarah 2:271].


Ibn Katheer (may Allah have mercy on him) said: The words “but if you conceal it, and give it to the poor, that is better for you” indicate that giving charity in secret is better than giving it openly, because that is further removed from showing off, unless giving it openly will serve a greater purpose by setting an example for people, in which case it is better in that respect.


End quote from Tafseer al-Qur’an al-‘Azeem, 1/701


Secondly:


The Sunnah indicates that it is better to offer the naafil prayers at home. Al-Bukhaari (6113) and Muslim (781) narrated that the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “You should pray in your houses, for the best of a man’s prayer is in his house, apart from the obligatory prayers.”


The scholars (may Allah have mercy on them) stated that one of the benefits of that is that praying at home is closer to sincerity and further removed from showing off.


Ibn Qudaamah (may Allah have mercy on him) said: Offering voluntary prayers at home is better, because the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “You should pray in your houses, for the best of a man’s prayer is in his house, apart from the obligatory prayers.” Narrated by Muslim. It was narrated from Zayd ibn Thaabit (may Allah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “A man’s prayer in his house is better than his prayer in this mosque of mine, apart from the obligatory prayers.” Narrated by Abu Dawood. And that is because praying at home is closer to sincerity and further removed from showing off.


End quote from al-Mughni, 1/443


Thirdly:


If not telling your parents will result in what you mentioned, then in this case it is better to tell them, so as to ward off suspicion and negative thinking of you. Moreover, perhaps by telling them – as you said – it will make them feel happy, and making parents feel happy, by obeying them and doing good, is part of honouring them, which is something that is prescribed and that one should be eager to do.


With regard to the fear of showing off, you have to strive to make yourself sincere, and ask Allah, may He be glorified and exalted, to help you to do that.


May Allah help us and you to be sincere in worshipping Him, may He be exalted, and may He protect us all from the evil of our own selves, for He is able to do that.


And Allah knows best.

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Hajj does not waive obligatory duties such as expiations and debts

Praise be to Allah, last year I had the opportunity to perform the obligation of Hajj. As you know, the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said in the hadeeth: “An accepted Hajj brings no less a reward than Paradise.” When the Muslim performs the obligatory Hajj, all the sins that he had committed are forgiven and he goes back from Hajj (free of sin) as on the day his mother bore him, and he goes back to the fitrah (sound human nature). My question is: I have some days to make up from Ramadan from two years ago. After performing Hajj, do I still need to make these days up, or will Allah forgive me for what is past because of the Hajj that I did?.



Praise be to Allah




There are many hadeeths about the virtues of Hajj which indicate that it erases sins and expiates for bad deeds, and the individual returns from it (free of sin) as on the day his mother bore him.


But this virtue and reward does not mean that obligatory duties are waived, whether they are duties owed to Allah, may He be exalted, such as expiations and fulfilment of vows, or duties that he has not yet fulfilled, such as zakaah that he has not paid or fasts that he has to make up, or duties owed to other people, such as debts and the like. Hajj brings forgiveness of sins, but it does not mean that these duties are waived, according to scholarly consensus.


If a person delays making up Ramadan fasts, for example, and that is without an excuse, then he does Hajj and it is accepted, his Hajj brings forgiveness for the sin of delaying, but the obligation to make up those days is not waived.


It says in Kashshaaf al-Qinaa‘ (2/522): ad-Dumayri said: In the saheeh hadeeth it says: “Whoever performs Hajj and does not utter obscenities or commit sin, will emerge from his sins as on the day his mother bore him.” This has to do specifically with sins that are connected to the rights of Allah, may He be exalted, in particular, and not the rights of other people. The duties themselves are not waived. So if a person owes prayer, expiations and other rights of Allah, may He be exalted, they are not waived, because they are duties, not sins; rather the sin is delaying them. So the delay is waived by Hajj, but the duty itself is not. If he delays it after that, the sin is renewed. So an accepted Hajj brings forgiveness for the sin of non-compliance, but does not waive the duties themselves. This was stated in al-Mawaahib. End quote.


Ibn Nujaym (may Allah have mercy on him) said in al-Bahr ar-Raa’iq (2:364), after mentioning the difference of opinion about Hajj being expiation for major sins: To sum up: the matter is controversial and there is no c rtainty that Hajj expiates major sins involving the rights of Allah, may He be exalted, let alone the rights of people. If we say that it expiates everything, that does not mean, as many people think, that debts are waived thereby. The same applies to making up prayers, fasts and zakaah because no one says that. Rather what is meant is that the sin of delaying payment of the debt is waived, but if after standing in ‘Arafah he delays paying it, he is sinning now. The same applies to delaying prayers until after the time for them has ended. The sin is erased by means of Hajj but the duty to make them up is not waived. Moreover, after standing in ‘Arafah, he is still required to make them up, and if he does not do so, he is now a sinner according to the view of those who say that he should make them up immediately. And the same applies to other actions by analogy. To sum up, no one suggested that the hadeeths which speak of the expiation of sin by virtue of Hajj are general in meaning, as is clear. End quote.


To conclude: you still have to make up the days that you owe of Ramadaan, and your duties cannot be discharged except by doing that.


And Allah knows best.

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Tuesday, August 12, 2014

Ruling on reciting ruqyah in unison over sick people

In my mosque, they always recite ruqyah for the sick; no week goes by without the mosque announcing a request for volunteers to recite ruqyah for someone. Usually they form a circle around the person and recite Qur’an, either by sharing out the ajza’ (parts) of the Qur’an, or one person recites some soorahs of the Qur’an, whilst the others repeat after him. Sometimes they recite Qur’an for blessing after divorce, graduation from school or a number of other things that I have seen myself. Or they pass out books of supplications (du‘aa’s) and verses to be recited during this gathering, but they do not provide any evidence for what they are doing. Sometimes in these circles there is mixing with women. I also attended a gathering in which they recited the basmalah (the phrase Bismillah ir-Rahmaan ir-Raheem (in the name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful) over some water, then they began to sprinkle it on the members of a family. Can you tell me whether these practices are permissible or innovated? I have stopped attending these gatherings altogether. Is there any book on the fiqh of ruqyah and ta‘weedh (seeking refuge with Allah from the Shaytan)? Can we use ruqyah for trivial things such as divorce and graduation?



Praise be to Allah


Firstly:


It is not correct to make ruqyah something widespread that is done by everyone. How many there will be among these volunteers who do not recite Qur’an well or do not understand its meanings! Based on that, this is the first problem with what these people are doing of asking volunteers to perform ruqyah for the sick. Most of them may not be qualified for that, and they (the organizers) will not have fulfilled the conditions that must be met by the raaqi (the one who performs ruqyah).


Secondly:


There is no basis in Islam for reciting ruqyah in a group, as far as we know, whether that is done by reciting it in unison or repeating it after one of them. This is not the way to perform ruqyah. What is normally done with regard to ruqyah is that it is done by one person who recites over the sick person the ruqyah that is Islamically prescribed; there is no reason why someone else should not help him if he becomes tired or he stops, so that the other person may perform ruqyah for the sick person after him. But with regard to more than one person reciting in unison or repeating after a reciter or raaqi, this is something for which there is no basis in Islam, as stated above, and it does not come under the heading of treating the sick with ruqyah. With regard to recitation of the Islamically prescribed ruqyah by a particular reciter or raaqi over water, which is then used to wash the sick person or given to him to drink, that is permissible.


Thirdly:


Recitation of Qur’an on the occasion mentioned (in the question) and similar occasions is something for which there is no basis in the Sunnah, whether that is recitation of a random passage from the Qur’an or recitation of al-Faatihah in particular on some occasion, because the basic principle with regard to acts of worship is that they are based on tawqeef [i.e., they can only be known through divine Revelation and sound texts of hadeeth, with no room for ijtihaad]. There were (among the early generation) occasions such as divorce, marriage and so on, during which not a single letter of the Qur’an, al-Faatihah or anything else, was recited by the people present. All goodness is in following the earlier generations and all evil is in following innovations introduced by those who came after them.


Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allah have mercy on him) said: al-Faatihah and other specific soorahs are only to be recited in the cases prescribed by Islam. If they are recited in other cases as an act of worship, then this is regarded as an innovation. We have seen many people reciting al-Faatihah on all occasions; we have even heard people saying, “Recite al-Faatihah for the deceased” or “for such and such” and so on. All of this comes under the heading of reprehensible innovations. Al-Faatihah and other soorahs are not to be recited in all situations, in all places and at all times, and we should object to the one who does that.


End quote from Fataawa Noor ‘ala ad-Darb, tape no. 371




Fourthly:


Mixing of men and women is haraam and reprehensible; the prohibition is more emphatic and the abhorrent nature of the act is greater if that mixing takes place in one of the houses of Allah and is done openly and attributed to Islam! We have quoted the evidence for the prohibition on mixing in the answer to question no. 1200


What appears to us to be the case from the questions asked by the brother is that the people who do these actions and supervise them are not people of knowledge; he should explain to them the mistakes that they are making and show them this answer of ours, in the hope that Allah will guide them to give up what they are doing wrong; you should also be gentle in telling them not to do it. May Allah guide and help you.


And Allah knows best.

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