Monday, August 31, 2015

The Woman Who Places Her Picture Wearing Niqab on Internet Forums and Other Places

A questioner from France says:

tumblr_ns67cwuJF81u8rtwro7_r1_540.jpgAs salaamu alaikum, jazakaAllahu khairan O Shaykh. What is your view concerning the woman who places her picture wearing niqab, even though her face is covered, on the internet forums and other places? Keeping in mind, this is a fitnah for the young men. May Allah bless you.

Shaykh Haamid ibn al-Khamis al-Junaibee:

You know, I do not know—Subhana Allah—some of the women, what do they want from this?

What do they want by uploading these pictures, even those who upload their pictures in which they are wearing niqab, or a woman with her face covered, what does she want from this?

This is not done by someone with insight and wisdom and this is evidence of an ignorant way of thinking.

What benefit is gained by uploading a picture of a woman wearing niqab, for example?

And the evil is greater if she uploads a picture of herself. It is as though she is saying to them: “Look at me,” whether she is wearing niqab or not; along with the beautification or the eyes and other than that.

I say: My general advice to the women:

Fear Allah O women, those who enter the internet forums and internet websites, and the social networking sites such as twitter and the other websites.

Fear Allah. Whether addressing the men, or chatting with the men, uploading pictures, and going to great lengths in this matter.

This is a great door to evil, the magnitude of it is only known to Allah.

And Allah knows the situation of these affairs based on these forums and websites, from the abundance of evil that occurs from some of the people due to these affairs; whether it is by the private messages, or by connecting through other means, or by sending emails, or other than that from the means that some men use to catch women.

And sometimes it occurs between a man who is religiously committed and a woman who is religiously committed. Fear Allah O daughters of the Muslims!!

By Allah, surely I know specific people, I know specific people, and I do not say this from the standpoint of mentioning stories and tales, but rather from the standpoint of inciting fear and alarm, this is the standpoint I am coming from.

A woman and a man fell into fornication. Both of them were students of knowledge, both of them were students of knowledge. I know them specifically.

We ask Allah for safety and security.

Thus beware, beware—may Allah bless you—beware beware! The person must stay far away from the doors of evil and he must make an escape from them; fleeing.

Whoever needs to connect with someone, whether it is for marriage, or engagement, the connection should occur from the females, from your family, your relatives, from this method. And do not open this door upon yourself! Because this door is a door of evil, such that if it is open it is not about to close except with great evil.

We seek refuge in Allah. We ask Allah for safety and security.

Tuesday, August 18, 2015

Of Meat and the Megamachine

This age of information we live and breathe in is at its apogee. It defines all that we do. Literally, every movement we make, every place we go, every book we order, every movie we watch, every news article we read, every picture we like – is collected and collated and stored as data. Freedom has never been a bigger lie. As Julia Angwin writes in her book Dragnet Nation: “[T]oday the anxious question – ‘who’s watching?’ – is relevant to everyone regardless of his or her fame or criminal persuasion. Any of us can be watched at almost any time, whether it is by a Google Street View car taking a picture of our house, or an advertiser following us as we browse the Web, or the National Security Agency logging our phone calls.”[1] This is the age of the Panopticon. We are all at the mercy of the all-seeing eye of the megamachine – the megamachine whose fodder is data, our data, our very souls and selves.

4388887865_829a5a1c82_o-200x133.jpgMegamachine. Image taken at English Russia./p>

Take Denmark’s ban last year of kosher and halal slaughter of animals that have not been pre-stunned,[2]which was recently in the news again.[3] (How this relates to information and data may not be immediately obvious, but bear with me.) According to the law animals that are not “stunned” before their blood is let – whether by gassing, electrocution, or with a bolt through the skull – are seen as necessarily subjected to needless pain, the understanding being that pre-stunning renders animals “unconscious” and incapable of experiencing pain when their necks are cut open.

Conversely, in his study of industrial slaughtering practices Every Six Seconds: Industrialized Slaughter and the Politics of Sight, Timothy Pachirat[4] observes the innumerable times that animals are not rendered “unconscious” by the process of stunning. They are frequently noticeably alive even after they have been “stuck.” “Sticking” is the name given to the way in which animals are bled in non-kosher, non-halal, secular slaughterhouses. Significantly, the cut is a lateral one along the length of the neck, as opposed to a horizontal one in the case of kosher and halal slaughter. It is significant because the horizontal incision cuts through the carotid arteries, and is designed to kill the animal through massive, rapid bleeding; whereas, the lateral cut of the secular slaughterhouse, which is not in itself intended to be death-dealing, bleeds the animals relatively slowly. This is why Pachirat often found animals showing clear signs of life (such as rolling eyes) while they were being skinned a few feet beyond the “knocking” chute where a bolt was shot through their brain.

Jews and Muslims who eat kosher and halal meat argue that such methods of killing animals are less cruel than mainstream means. And, more importantly for them, they are in keeping with religious law, which, according to one position, does not allow for the stunning of animals (another perspective does allow for it, hence the Danish ban is only directed at kosher and halal slaughter practices that do not include pre-stunning). This is because pre-stunned animals risk being dead before their blood is let, and an animal is not considered halal or kosher if it has died before the religious rite of sacrifice has been carried out.

It is Muslim philosopher Tariq Ramadan’s contention, however, that industrialized slaughter – and the attendant practices surrounding factory farming – misses the higher objectives of Islamic law vis-à-vis animals, which is to maintain kindness and mercy in every aspect of a Muslim’s interactions with them, from their raising, to their transportation, to their slaughter, to their eating. There is a sacrificial – from the Latin meaning “to make sacred” – aspect to one’s relationship to animals. Whereas the slaughterhouse functions according to the logic of the megamachine, where efficiency always trumps empathy.

And this is where the connection with data comes in. As mentioned earlier, we are at the mercy of the all-seeing eye of the megamachine whose food is data, our data, the data of our very souls. And the logic of the megamachine is defined by efficiency. In his two-volume masterwork The Myth of the Machine, the historian, sociologist, philosopher of technology, and literary critic Lewis Mumford (1895-1990) argued that modern society is a megamachine. The megamachine is the coming-together of science, technology, and political power as a single community of interpretation that renders life-enhancing values useless, eccentric, and even taboo. This, because such values do not further the logic and reach of the megmachine.

The megamachine, according to Mumford, is run by (and for) “the dominant minority” – the 1% in contemporary parlance – in relation to which individual and group personalities are leveled: “With this new ‘megatechnics’ the dominant minority will create a uniform, all-enveloping, super-planetary structure, designed for automatic operation. Instead of functioning actively as an autonomous personality, man will become a passive, purposeless, machine-conditioned animal whose proper functions, as technicians now interpret man’s role, will either be fed into the machine or strictly limited and controlled for the benefit of de-personalized, collective organizations.”[5]

In the history of the megamachine, the invention of the clock is significant. Originally created by Benedictine monks so that they could practice their rituals with timed regularity and accuracy, it was subsequently coopted by Charlemagne, who then passed an edict ruling that all his subjects work and rest according to a single, official clock. Mammon had won over God, as Neil Postman puts it. And of course the clock is definitive in its role behind the creation of the idea of efficiency, which is the guiding principle of the megamachine.

The megamachine cannot countenance a philosophy that seeks to undermine it. The Mosaic Law was and is such a philosophy. It literally has built into it a day of rest (Sabbath) when people are forbidden to work. In other words, they are forbidden – by religious law and values – from contributing to the megamachine. According to Mumford, what he calls the Pyramid Age is the first large-scale example of the megamachine, and the biblical Pharaoh and Moses are archetypal figures for and against the smooth running of the megamachine for and against the dominant elite and the weak masses.

Secular law, as opposed to religious law, is crucial for the functioning of the megamachine. Especially because it reduces its subjects to the same level, and therefore more readily manipulable. Christianity – as opposed to Judaism and Islam – has been more readily malleable to the law of the megamachine, not least because of the New Testament edict: “Render unto Caesar the things that are Caesar’s, and unto God the things that are God’s.” Therein lies the roots of secularism: the separation of Church and State. Although historically this process has been messy, it is significant that this idea is promoted by European secularists who argue for the fundamental compatibility of Christianity with secular European values, and the fundamental incompatibility of Jewish and Islamic values. It helps also that Christ (at least the Pauline Christ) came to abolish the Mosaic Law, so it was all the more – and is all the more – easy for Christians to adopt the laws of the land. Or so the argument goes.

In this age of information, which reduces each and every one of us to data points, which are mined in order for our present and future manipulation, including that of our offspring and our offspring’s offspring, we must all be reduced to units that are essentially the same. The principle of efficiency entails this. And group values – such as religious laws – that are not in tune with the rules of the megamachine must be made to conform. This is the real reason why Denmark (and this sentiment is echoed, and will soon enough be seen, across Europe) ruled that non-stunned halal and kosher meat is illegal. Not because of any fundamental concern with animal welfare – as already mentioned, any serious study of industrial slaughter practices quickly reveals how fundamentally cruel they are. And it is not that Jews and Muslims are necessarily more humane when it comes to how they treat animals either. In reality, they are just as guilty of horrific behavior towards animals as their secular (or otherwise ) counterparts. They are merely trying to hold onto the vestiges of a religious law that is gasping its final breaths in the face of the all-encompassing, all-seeing megamachine which understands only its own logic of efficiency.

And may God, Yahweh, Allah have mercy on us all…

cover photo by Phil Wolff/flick CC license

Notes

[1] Julia Angwin, Dragnet Nation, p.1 Nation-Security-Relentless-Surveillance/dp/1250060869/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1438752964&sr=8-1&keywords=dragnet+nation

[2] news/world/europe/denmark-bans-halal-and-kosher-slaughter-as-minister-says-animal-rights-come-before-religion-9135580.html

[3] denmark-ban-kosher-halal/

denmark-gets-wrong-about-halal/

[4] review-every-twelve-seconds-industrialized-slaughter-and-the-politics-of-sight/

[5] Luis Mumford, The Myth of the Machine: Technics and Human Development, 1966, p.3

Monday, August 17, 2015

The Gift of Iddah

A part of me died four months and ten days ago.

shutterstock_133368530.jpgBut, alhamdulillah, it wasn't hope. It wasn't courage. And it definitely wasn't faith and trust in my Lord's perfect plan.
Click to get started now!
The call that changed everything

The call woke me before Fajr. My heart stopped as I tried to recognize the number on the screen. A blank. But when I answered the phone and heard the familiar voice of the doctor on the other side, I prepared myself for the worst.

And the worst came: heart stopped beating, CPR attempted for 30 minutes, no hope.

'JazakAllahu khairan,' I whispered hoarsely before cutting off the call. Then I immediately rose from the bed and fell into sujood of shukr. alhamdulillah.

It was the moment I had dreaded but also a moment I had been preparing myself for, ever since a sister, who had come to visit me at the hospital, had told me the story of a husband and wife whose daughter was desperately ill. Every time they came to the hospital, the doctors would tell them more reasons why she was not going to make it. And, at every visit, the father would turn to his wife and said, 'Don't forget.'

This continued for several days, the doctors predicting the worst, and the husband reminding his wife not to forget, until the day they arrived and were given the news that would break any parent's heart: their daughter had died.

Upon hearing the news, the husband turned to his wife and said to her, 'Now,' and they both fell into sujood of shukr.

The hospital staff were amazed, some of them even horrified. Surely this was a terribly sad event, one to be wept over, to be mourned, not to be celebrated with sujood?

They asked the couple why, why had they done this?

And the couple told the staff at that hospital how they had taken the decision to give thanks for their daughter's life, for the joy she had brought them, for the love they had shared with her. Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) had allowed them to love and care for her for all those years: should they not give thanks for this?

And, when I heard this story, I decided that that was what I was going to do, if it ever came to that.

Because, you see, I had no right to bemoan losing my husband, after being gifted with more happiness in 16 years than many taste in a several lifetimes. Alhamdulillah, Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) guided us both to Islam and, a few short years later, to each other. My husband's understanding and patient attitude brought out the best in me, in deen and dunyah. His way was not to command or force, but rather guide and, even, let me make my own mistakes and learn from them. As with those he worked with, his aim was always to support me in fulfilling my potential, because it was that quality that had drawn him to me in the first place (his words, not mine!). Quite simply, we understood each other, we supported each other, we were best friends and allies, as well as husband and wife. It is no exaggeration to say that, without him, I would not be the woman I am today. It was for this reason that I dedicated From My Sisters' Lips to him, all those years ago: 'For the wind beneath my wings'. I always prayed that any good I had done would be counted in the scale of his good deeds.

As it was, Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) took him after a bout of illness, after completing the Hajj twice (the last time, with me) and having recently taken all his children for 'Umrah. He died a Muslim, on tawheed, in the land of the Muslims, well-loved by his family, friends and colleagues. Alhamdulillah, some things are indeed a comfort.


A deep and terrible loss

In the days that followed his passing, I was on autopilot. There is no time for breaking down when you are a foreign national, trying to complete paperwork for a burial, on the day the British Embassy is closed for a UK holiday. I went through the motions: I Whatsapped everyone to give them the news, I sat on the phone to try to get an appointment to allow his body to be buried in Egypt, as he would have wanted; I stood in crowded offices while my papers were shuffled back and forth, collecting stamps and signatures along the way. By the time we had finally got permission to bury him, we were late: the Dhuhr prayer was in less than an hour. My phone was dead. I knew that I wouldn't be able to let people know about the Janazah in time. But, by that time, I was past caring.

I observed the Janazah salah from the steps of the masjid and I said my last salaam to him in the courtyard before they took him on the long drive to the graveyard.

Surrounded by my children, my family, my in-laws, sisters, brothers, colleagues and well-wishers on every side, I felt like I was watching a scene in a movie. I played my part well: I was the gracious widow, receiving condolences, comforting others, maintaining my composure, but, in truth, my heart was aching. And yet, through it all, my faith in Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) was undaunted, alhamdulillah.

I wrote at the time: I feel so incredibly blessed. Even in the midst of the trial, as the tears fall, I am surrounded by His Mercy. The du'as, the support, the love, the sense of strength and serenity, are all signs of His Mercy. Alhamdulillah, I accept. Alhamdulillah, I am at peace. Alhamdulillah, alhamdulillah, alhamdulillah is the balm for my aching heart.

The next challenge, after burying him, would be mourning him, observing the 'iddah.
Observing the 'iddah

There is a delicate tension in the state of iddah, the mourning period for a widow.

On the one hand, life continues, particularly if you have children or have to work to support your family. Contrary to popular belief, it is permitted for the widow in 'iddah to go out during the day to fulfil her needs*. The pressures, demands and responsibilities of the world are real and they won't wait for four months and ten days to be over. Some widows find that family members take over these tasks but, in many cases, you are forced to plan, to look forward, to move on, to face the world. It can be an exquisite distraction from the pain that lies buried deep under the school run, bedtime stories and endless paperwork and deadlines. But it is still a distraction.

On the other hand, your state of 'iddah restricts you; you cannot fully embrace life, even if you want to. You are not supposed to wear beautiful clothes or adorn yourself in any way. Although you may have visitors and spend time with family and friends, you are expected to shun social gatherings. You are not to entertain proposals. You should observe your period of mourning in your marital home. All this means that you must pause. You must reflect. You must withdraw. You must face the reality, brave the darkness: the ache, the loneliness, the anger, the fear, that feeling of being utterly bereft. You must face it because it will break you down, bring you to your knees, make you feel once again that vulnerability of his last days when you would have given anything for one last apology, one last kiss, one last promise. You must face the reality that this is Allah's plan for you. And that, if this is so, there must be khair in it for you. It's there. It's there in the chance to ask for forgiveness, to pour your heart out, to cleanse, to rectify your soul, to purify your habits, to be ready to emerge from your 'iddah like a butterfly from a chrysalis: reborn, refashioned, beautiful.
The gift of 'iddah

For me, my 'iddah has been a time of discovery, full of challenges, but, equally, full of triumphs. So far, I have weathered the storm. We all have, alhamdulillah.

During my 'iddah, I have tasted grief, a grief unlike any I have felt before. At times, I have felt a crushing and desperate loneliness, a longing for my love that threatens to suffocate me. But then I breathe, one beat, two beats, and it is soothed: Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) sends me relief in the form of an ayah, or a poem, or a phone call or a sister dropping by out of the blue to listen and hold my hand and let me know that it is ok to feel.

I have also felt, as many widows do, the weight of new responsibilities, too numerous to name. The realisation that it is all down to you now, that you are a single parent, that there is no escape from the responsibility, is a terrifying one.

I have also felt the confusion, the anger, the sadness that all widows must feel.

But, equally, with every test, Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) has shown me the truth of His words: 'Verily with every difficulty, there is ease.' I have held onto those words; they have kept me from drowning many, many times.

By His grace, I have felt the love of so many kind and goodhearted souls who have been there for me, sometimes traveling great distances, to take the kids, to make me a cup of tea, to listen to me, to let me cry and to let me sleep for two days straight. May Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) reward them with Jannat-ul-Firdaws; they have taught me the true meaning of sisterhood. I have felt the love that radiates from my children, my family and from those I do not know a thousand miles away; I have felt the thrill of strength and determination as I continue to walk forward and achieve the goals I have set for myself, for our family; and I have felt the healing balm of gratitude that continues to sustain me.

If it is not improper to say so, I would say that I eventually found my 'iddah period empowering. By Allah's grace, I have been able to come to terms with and accept that my husband is no longer with us. I have come to accept and embrace the challenges that this new journey will bring. I am at peace with the decree of Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He). Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) promises that He will never burden a soul more than it can bear – that alone gives me the courage and confidence I need to meet the numerous challenges head-on. I know in my heart of hearts, with full yaqeen, that He did not test us with this to break us, but rather, to purify us, to lift us up. He has been my solace throughout this test and I have never once despaired of His Mercy. Alhamdulillah, He has never failed to come to my aid in my time of need. He has never failed to 'catch me'. And He never will, bi'idhnillah.

Alhamdulillah 'ala kulli haal.

Sweet stoicism

Stifles the screams,

Silences the sighs,

Sinks the soul

To numbness.

My heart is too hard to hurt.

My hands, too full to face the sky.

My eyes, too focused to tear up

With wild, wilful tears.

Forgive me, Lord.

Forgive me

And catch me

When my back finally breaks

When my heart finally cracks

When the tears finally fall

And fall

And fall,

Drowning me

And all my patience,

Strength

And fortitude.

When the agony of loss

Threatens to throw me from the cliff,

Catch me, Lord.

Catch me.

Na'ima B. Robert is the acclaimed author of From My Sisters' Lips and founding Editor of SISTERS http://bit.ly/1DZGGu8 , the Magazine for Fabulous Muslim Women. Her new book of poetry, 'Catch Me', is available on Amazon now and her support website for widows www.my-iddah.com goes live this week, insha Allah. To find out more about her work, visit http://bit.ly/1DZGIlD

Ilm-ul-Kalam is among such innovations in the religion.

Ilm-ul-Kalam (Knowledge Of Theological Rhetoric) – Ibn Baz

tumblr_nswjj5ku1b1rww5f5o1_540.jpg?w=300 Ilmul-Kalaam (argumentation based on Greek philosophy) is among such innovations in the religion that created intellectual schisms in the Muslim nation and initiated deviant trends.

One of the sects that indulged in Ilmul-Kalaam were the Mu’tazilah.

They gave precedence to intellect over the revealed texts of the Qur’aan and the Sunnah – when they perceived the two conflicted.

This attitude set an evil precedent for all later groups who sought to make intellect and desire decisive over the Qur’aan and the Sunnah

Ibn Baz Fatwa on this topic:

Q 3: Some people read many intellectual and scientific books and think that they have become a scholar or a Da’y (caller to Islam), although they may have poor knowledge in Fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence) and have not read any books about Shari’ah (Islamic law). What is Your Eminence’s opinion in this regard?

A: Knowledge of Shari’ah is derived from what Allah and His Messenger (peace be upon him) have said, and not from someone else’s words.

The first source of Islamic knowledge is the Word of Allah and His Messenger, then the views of Muslim scholars who explain and interpret them for people.

These scholars are Allah’s successors on earth after the messengers.

Allah (may He be Glorified and Exalted) says:(Surah Al-`Imran, 3: 18) Allýh bears witness that Lý ilýha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He), and the angels, and those having knowledge (also give this witness). Here, knowledge refers to knowing Allah and His Religion.
Allah (may He be Exalted) says:(Surah Fatir, 35: 28) It is only those who have knowledge among His slaves that fear Allýh.

They are the messengers and their insightful followers, who follow this truthful religion and abide by the Qur’an and Sunnah (whatever is reported from the Prophet).

Muslim scholars are the heirs of Messengers, since they explain the religion and guide others to Allah.

Moreover, a true knowledge seeker studies and reflects on the Qur’an and Sunnah and learns from Muslim scholars.

This is the way of acquiring knowledge of Shari`ah which involves doing acts of obedience, meditating and benefiting from others.

A knowledge seeker should read a lot, with the aim of attaining as much knowledge as possible.

They should reflect on knowledge and look for answers to unclear matters in trustworthy books of Tafsir (exegesis of the meanings of the Qur’an) such as :

Tafsir by Ibn Kathir,
Al-Baghawy and others,
in addition to paying great attention to books of Hadith.

Furthermore, knowledge of Shari`ah should be taken from :

Knowledgeable scholars among Ahl-ul-Sunnah wal-Jama’ah (those adhering to the Sunnah and the Muslim main body) and
Not scholars of ‘Ilm-ul-Kalam (a discipline that searches for answers to creedal issues using logic), innovators in religion or ignorant people.

Anything that is not included in the Qur’an and Sunnah cannot be considered Islamic knowledge, even if it is useful in worldly affairs.

Here, we are concerned about knowledge that is useful in the Hereafter, which eliminates ignorance, clarifies the religion and shows people what Allah has made lawful and unlawful to them.

Indeed, this is the true knowledge of Shari`ah.

Tight clothes are not permissible for men or women

Is praying in pants invalid?

tumblr_nr9k364pvr1sjt6sco1_500.jpg?w=300Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzaan has issued a fatwa stating that if a woman prays in tight clothes that show the shape of her ‘awrah, her prayer is valid, although she is sinning by wearing these clothes.

He said:

It is not permissible to wear tight clothes which show the limbs and the shape of a woman’s body and buttocks.
Tight clothes are not permissible for men or women, but it is especially forbidden for women, because the fitnah in their case is greater.

With regard to praying in particular, if a person prays with his ‘awrah covered in such clothes, his prayer is valid in and of itself, because the ‘awrah is covered, but he is sinning by praying in tight clothes, because he has transgressed one of the prescribed requirements of prayer by wearing tight clothes.

This is one aspect.

Another aspect is that it is a cause of temptation and attracts attention, especially in the case of women.
So women should cover themselves with loose garments which will cover them and not show any of the limbs of their body or attract attention.
So it should not be a thin or see-through garment, rather it should be a concealing garment which will cover the woman completely. End quote.

Al-Muntaqa min Fataawa al-Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzaan, 3/454

“O world (dunya), how insignificant you are to the righteous…”

Dawud ibn Hilal al-Nusaybee says:

grass-frost-nature-winter-hd-wallpaper.jIt is written in the Scriptures of Ibraheem (peace be upon him):

“O world (dunya), how insignificant you are to the righteous to whom you adorn yourself. I (Allah) created in their hearts hatred towards you and dislike for you. There is nothing in creation that is more insignificant to Me than you. Everything about you is insignificant; you are bound to perish.

I decreed the day I created creation that you would not last for anyone, and no one would last for you. And even if the one who loves you tried to hold on to you, glad tidings to the righteous who showed Me what they have of contentment in their hearts and they showed Me what they have of sincerity and righteousness.

Glad tidings to them:

I have no reward for them when they come to Me out of their graves except light running ahead of them, and the angels surrounding them, until I grant them what they hope for of My mercy.”

[Al-Zuhd, by Ibn Abi’l-Dunya]

Sunday, August 16, 2015

She does not have any wali

She does not have any wali (guardian) for the purpose of marriage

tumblr_ni8jbiJTDW1rs9pnko1_500.jpgShaykh Ibn Baaz (may Allah have mercy on him) said:

If the woman is in a country where there is no wali –

no brother,
no father, and
no paternal cousin

– then the ruler takes the place of the wali; her wali is the ruler,

Because the Prophet (Sallallahu a’alaihi wa sallam) said:

“The ruler is the wali of the one who does not have a wali.” So the ruler takes the place of her wali and becomes her wali; he may give her in marriage or appoint someone else to give her in marriage.

If she is in a land where there is no :

(Muslim) ruler,
qaadi or wali,

as in the case of Muslim minorities in non-Muslim countries, then the director of the Islamic Centre may give her in marriage, if there is an Islamic centre, because his position is like that of the ruler for them.

The director of the Islamic Centre may look at her case and give her in marriage to one who is compatible, if she does not have any guardians of her own and there is no qaadi.
If the wali lives far away, he should be corresponded with ot spoken to until he appoints someone as his proxy (wakeel).
But if it is not known where he is, then the next closest wali takes his place; the one who is most closely related to him takes his place.
If she has no wali except this absent one whose whereabouts is unknown, then the ruler takes his place.

http://bit.ly/M9cseH

If the enemy captures a single Muslim

“If the enemy captures a single Muslim, it becomes waajib (obligatory) on every one who has the ability, to rush to their rescue…”

my-galaxy-core-iron-gate-locked-black-wh
The scholars have many positions on this subject, but they are agreed upon it being obligatory to free the Muslim prisoners of war, by either sacrificing ourselves or by our wealth.

Imaam an-Nawawee said:

If the enemy captures a Muslim or two, then is it equivalent to invading a Muslim land? There are two opinions on this. The first opinion is no, because the troubling of one Muslim soldier is insignificant.

The more correct and other opinion of the two is yes, because the sanctity of a single Muslim is greater than the sanctity of an entire state.

Therefore, if the Islamic State is close to the location where the prisoner was captured, then it should release the prisoner and exact a fine from those who have captured him.

(Otherwise, paying the ransom money is waajib (compulsory) if we can free the prisoner by it).

(ar-Raudah 10/216)

Ibn Qudamah al-Hanbali said:

It is obligatory to pay the ransom money for the Muslim prisoners, if it is possible.

(al-Mughni 9/228)

This was also said by Umar bin Abdul-Azeez, Imaam Maalik and Ishaaq. It has been narrated from Ibn Zubair that he asked al-Hassan bin Ali about freeing the prisoners.

al-Hassan replied:

“It is obligatory upon the entire Earth on which he was fighting.”

al-Qurtubee (2/26) said:

Our scholars have said that ransoming the prisoners with money is waajib (obligatory), even if one dirham does not remain in the Islamic Treasury. Ibn Khuwaiz Mindad has confirmed the existence of verses of the Qur’an that indicate the obligation of releasing the prisoners. It has also been narrated from the Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) that he ransomed the prisoners and ordered others to do so as well. This has also been the course taken by the Muslims and their consensus that it is incumbent to free the prisoners by taking money from the Islamic Treasury, and if that is not possible, then it becomes compulsory as a collective duty. If one person executes it, the sin is lifted from the shoulders of the rest of the Muslims.

End quote

Shaykh-ul-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah said:

Freeing the prisoners is one of the greatest compulsory deeds, and spending ransom money and other means towards that is one of the greatest ways to come close to Allah.

(al-Fatawa 28/635)

Ibn Hajar al-Haithamee said:

If the enemy captures a single Muslim, it becomes waajib (obligatory) on every one who has the ability, to rush to their rescue (even without seeking anyone’s permission). It is apparent that it is compulsory on everyone, similar to the situation where the enemy invades our land. Moreover, saving our brothers is of a higher priority, as the sanctity of a Muslim is greater (than the sanctity of a State).

(Tuhfah al-Muhtaj 9/237)

Ibn Hajar al-Asqalanee said:

The saying of Imaam al-Bukhari, ‘The Chapter on Freeing Prisoners’ refers to freeing them from the hands of the enemy by money or by other means. The word ‘al-Fakak’, where the fa (Arabic letter) from the word has a fatha (it is also permissible for it to take a kasrah), means to free. This word is mentioned in two hadeeths.

The first one is the hadeeth of Abu Musa:

“Free the prisoner.”

Ibn Battal said that freeing the prisoners is compulsory on a collective duty (Fard Kifayah). This opinion is also held by the majority of the scholars.

(Fath al-Baaree 6/167)

Related from the author of ‘The Book of Jihad and Fighting in Islamic Politics’ from the author of as-Seer al-Kabeer with its commentary (3/1583):

It is ok to exchange both male and female non-Muslim prisoners who are in the hands of the Muslims, for Muslim prisoners. This is the opinion held by Abu Yusuf, Muhammad and it is the strongest opinion held by Abu Hanifah (may Allah be pleased with him).

al-Izz bin Abdus-Salam said:

Rescuing the Muslim prisoners from the hands of the disbelievers is one of the best means of coming close to Allah.

Some of the scholars have said:

“If even one Muslim is captured, it becomes compulsory upon us to persevere in fighting the disbelieving enemy until we either free the Muslim captives or destroy the disbelieving enemy. Therefore, what do you say if they capture a large number of Muslims!?”

(p. 97 from Ahkam al-Jihad wa Fadailihi)

Ibn Juzai al-Maaliki said:

It is necessary to rescue the Muslim prisoners from the hands of the disbelievers by fighting them. If the Muslims are unable to do so, then it becomes compulsory upon them to pay the ransom money. It is incumbent on a rich person to ransom himself and on the Imaam (leader), to pay the ransom money for the poor people, from the Islamic Treasury. If they still fall short, then it becomes compulsory to take from the wealth of all the Muslims, even if it finishes their wealth.

(p. 172 of Qawaneen al-Ahkam ash-Shar’iyyah)

Ibn Nuhaas transmits from an-Nawawee in ar-Raudah:

If the enemy captures a Muslim or two, then is it equivalent to invading a Muslim land? There are two opinions on this. The first opinion is no, because the troubling of one Muslim soldier is insignificant. The more correct and other opinion of the two is yes, because the sanctity of a single Muslim is greater than the sanctity of an entire state.

(2/838 from Mashari al-Ashwaq ila Masari’ al-Ushaq)

Ibn al-Arabi said:

Unless the prisoners are from the weak and oppressed, then the State should be steadfast in their cause. To help them with our bodies is waajib (obligatory) and no one should remain behind until they all leave to rescue them or spend all of their wealth to rescue them. This was said by Imaam Maalik and all of the scholars.

Verily, to Allah we belong and to Him we must return, if we leave our brothers in the hands of the enemy and they have wealth, weapons, number, strength and authority.

(Ahkam al-Quran 2/440)

Abu Bakr al-Jassas said:

The ransoming of Muslim prisoners is one of the obligatory deeds that has been established upon us. al-Hajjaj bin Artaah narrated about this ruling from his grandfather, that the Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) wrote a letter to the Muhajireen and Ansar, to detain the enemy prisoners in their stronghold, ransom their prisoners for something befitting and for peacemaking amongst the Muslims.

Mansoor narrated from Shaqeeq bin Salamah from Abu Musa al-Ash’aree that the Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) said:

“Feed the hungry, spread the greeting (salam), visit the sick and free the prisoner.”

These two serve as evidences for freeing the prisoners because the word, ‘Al-Aani’ in Arabic refers to prisoner. Imran bin Hussain and Salamah bin Al-Akwa’ narrated that the Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) ransomed pagans for Muslim prisoners.

(Ahkam al-Quran 1/58)

The jurists have said:

“It is compulsory upon us to even wage war in order to release the Muslim captives, if we are in a position to wage war.”

Imaam Maalik (may Allah have mercy upon him) said:

“It is obligatory upon the people to ransom the prisoners with all that they possess, and there is no difference in this (amongst the jurists), because the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) said,

“Secure the release of the captive!”

[al-Bukhari]

The Backbiting of the Heart

Know that having bad thoughts about someone is forbidden just like having bad speech about him. So just as it is forbidden for you to speak to others about the defects of a person, it is likewise forbidden for you to speak to yourself about that and to hold bad thoughts for him.

yellow-leaf-metal-fence-concrete-moss-wiAllah says:

“O you who believe, avoid much (types) of suspicion. Verily some (forms) of suspicion is a sin.”

[Surah al-Hujuraat: 12]

And Abu Hurairah (radiallaahu anhu) reported that Allah’s Messenger (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) said:

“Beware of suspicion, for indeed suspicion is the most untruthful form of speech.”

[Saheeh – Reported by al-Bukhari (10/484 of al-Fath) and Muslim (2563)]

The ahaadeeth with this same understanding I have mentioned here are many.

What the backbiting of the heart means, is:

When the heart has firm conviction and holds bad thoughts about someone.

But as for the notions that occasionally display in one’s mind or when one talks to himself, then as long as these thoughts do not remain established and continuous in him, it is excused according to the consensus of the scholars. This is since he has no choice in the matter as to stop it from occurring nor can he find any way to liberate himself from it when it does occur. This is the understanding of what has been authentically established (in the texts).

The Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) said:

“Indeed, Allah has permitted for my ummah that which their souls whisper to them, so long as they do not speak it out (audibly) or act upon it.”

[Saheeh – Reported by al-Bukhari (5/160 of al-Fath) and Muslim (127 and 202)]

The scholars say:

“This refers to the notions that form in one’s mind, but do not become settled or established there.”

And they said:

“This is regardless if the notion consists of backbiting, disbelief or so on (i.e. it is pardoned, so long as it does not settle).”

So (for example) whoever’s mind becomes flooded with thoughts of disbelief, but they are only thoughts, without him intending to have them carried out, and he then rids himself of these thoughts right after they occur, he is not a disbeliever nor is there any sin on him.

We have already stated previously, in the chapter on the (internal) whisperings, the authentic hadeeth, in which the Companions said:

“O Messenger of Allah! Some of us find things in our thoughts that are too tremendous to speak of.”

So he (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) said:

“That is the confirmation of Faith.”

[Saheeh – Reported by Muslim (132)] [1]

And this goes for the other reports we have mentioned in that chapter that bear the same understanding.

The reason for these thoughts being excused is due to what we have stated previously that these thoughts are impossible to prevent. Rather, one is only able to prevent those thoughts from becoming settled and established in one’s mind. This is why the heart’s being resolute and determined on these thoughts is forbidden.

So whenever these thoughts, which consist of backbiting or any other sin, present themselves in your mind, it is an obligation on you to repel them, turn away from them and mention some excuse or explanation that will change what seems apparent.

We stated previously that if someone is presented with a notion of bad thoughts for another person, he should cut off those bad thoughts. But this is unless there is some (religiously) legislated benefit that leads to thinking (about that person) in this manner. So if such a reason exists, holding these thoughts about his deficiencies is permissible, as well as warning against them, as can be seen in the jarh (criticism) of certain witnesses, narrators and others we have mentioned in the Chapter on “What Type of Backbiting is Permissible.”

From:

Guarding the Tongue – Imaam an-Nawawee

[1] Translator’s Note:

This hadeeth shows the Companions’ zeal and enthusiasm in commanding themselves with good and forbidding themselves from evil, such that they would even fight against the evil notions that passed through their minds. But as it is impossible to prevent such thoughts from occurring every now and then, they asked the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) about this. His response to them meant that their trying to repel these thoughts showed their strong Eemaan (Faith) and love for good.

Uncovering in front of the husband’s father through radaa’ah

Question: What is the ruling on a woman uncovering her face in front of her husband’s father through radaa’ah (breastfeeding) [i.e., the husband of the woman who breastfed him in infancy]?

Fatwa4.jpgAnswer: It is not permissible for a woman to uncover her face in front of her husband’s father through breastfeeding, according to the correct view which was favoured by Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah, because the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “The same people become mahrams through breastfeeding as those who are mahrams through blood ties.” The husband’s father is not a mahram for his son’s wife through blood ties, but he becomes a mahram through the marriage tie, because Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“Forbidden to you (for marriage) are: … the wives of your sons who (spring) from your own loins” [al-Nisa’ 4:23]

A son through breastfeeding is not the same as a son from one’s own loins. On this basis, if a woman’s husband has a father through breastfeeding, then she must observe hijaab in front of him and not uncover her face in front of him. If we assume that she were to separate from his son through breastfeeding, it would not be permissible for her to marry him, in order to be on the safe side, because this is the view of the majority of scholars.

Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen in al-Fataawa al-Jaami’ah li’l-Mar’ah al-Muslimah, part 3, p. 822


ما حكم كشف المرأة وجهها لأبي زوجها من الرضاعة ؟

كشف المرأة وجهها لأبي زوجها من الرضاعة لا يجوز على القول الراجح الذي اختاره شيخ الإسلام ابن تيمية لأن الرسول صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول : ( يحرم من الرضاعة ما يحرم من النسب ) وأبو الزوج ليس حراماً على زوجة ابنه من جهة النسب لكنه حرام من جهة الصهر ولأن الله يقول : ( وحلال أبنائكم الذين من أصلابكم ) النساء/23 والابن من الرضاع ليس من أبناء الصلب وعلى هذا فالمرأة إذا كان لزوجها أب من الرضاعة فإنه يجب عليها أن تتحجب عنده ولا تكشف وجهها له ولو فرض أنها فارقت ابنه من الرضاع لا تحل بالزواج احتياطاً لأن ذلك هو رأي جمهور العلماء .


الشيخ ابن عثيمين في الفتاوى الجامعة للمرأة المسلمة ج/3 ص 822

Saturday, August 15, 2015

Can a boy who is nine years old be a mahram when travelling?

It is very difficult to bring up children in accordance with the Qur’an and Sunnah in America, because the Islamic schools here either cost too much or they teach innovation (bid‘ah), let alone the fact that the teaching in the schools is not in accordance with the Qur’an and Sunnah. The same may be said concerning the mosques. Allah has enabled me to have a halaal source of income, but my income is not enough for me to afford the fees for these schools. We are trying hard to raise our children well. Therefore I would like to ask: is it permissible for my wife to travel with our children to India without a mahram, in order to register them in Islamic schools, where they will be able to live an Islamic life ? Please note that my son is nine years old, and my daughter is six years old.
Praise be to Allah

Fatwa5.jpgFirstly:

It is well-known that the basic principle with regard to a woman travelling without a mahram is that it is not allowed and is prohibited, because of the clear sound evidence that has been narrated concerning that.

One of the conditions that must be met by the mahram is that he should be an adult, because the purpose behind this role is to protect the woman, and a minor cannot do that. This has been explained in fatwa no. 316

Based on that, a child who has reached the age of nine years is not qualified to be a mahram for his mother when travelling.

Secondly:

The prohibition on a woman travelling without a mahram is a prohibition of the means (that may lead to negative results), not a prohibition of the aims and goals. In the case of this kind of prohibition, that which is prohibited may be made permissible in the case of necessity and overwhelming interests. It should not be applied so strictly that it puts severe pressure on a person and is detrimental to his interests.

Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allah have mercy on him) said:

All of Islamic teaching is based on the idea that in the case of bad things that deserve to be prohibited, if they are countered by an overwhelming need, that which is ordinarily prohibited may become permissible.

End quote from Majmoo‘ al-Fataawa (29/49)

He (may Allah have mercy on him) also said:

That which comes under the heading of barring the means is only prohibited if there is no need for it. But when there is a need to serve an interest that cannot be met otherwise, then it is not prohibited.

End quote from Majmoo‘ al-Fataawa (23/214)

Ibn al-Qayyim (may Allah have mercy on him) said:

Whatever is prohibited so as to bar the means may be permitted in the case of an overwhelming interest, just as looking [i.e., a woman looking at a man] is permitted in the case of a marriage proposal, giving testimony, and medical consultation.

End quote from I‘laam al-Muwaqqi‘een (2/161)

Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allah have mercy on him) said:

Whatever is prohibited because it is a means (that may lead to evil), may be permitted in the case of necessity.

End quote from Manzoomah Usool al-Fiqh (p. 67)

Based on this shar‘i principle, it is permissible – in some circumstances when there is a genuine need, or in order to achieve an important interest – for a woman to travel without a mahram.

Conclusion:

There is nothing wrong with your wife travelling with her two small children, if you think it most likely that an important interest will be served by that, and the environment in your country to which your wife is going to travel is safer for the children and more likely to help them in terms of their religious commitment.

However we should point out that it is important for her mahram to remain in the airport of departure until he is certain that she has boarded the plane and set off, then he should make sure that she will be welcomed by her mahram in the airport at her destination.

And Allah knows best.

Sufi tareeqahs and the ruling on joining them ?

The scholars of the Standing Committee were asked:

tumblr_nsxlzxloUn1qkprgpo1_540.jpgIs there any such thing in Islam as the numerous tareeqahs like the :

Shaadhilyyah,
Khalwatiyyah
etc?

If there is such a thing, what is the evidence for that?

What is the meaning of the verses in which Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“And verily, this is My straight path, so follow it, and follow not (other) paths, for they will separate you away from His path. This He has ordained for you that you may become Al‑Muttaqoon (the pious)”

[al-An’aam 6:153]

“And upon Allaah is the responsibility to explain the Straight Path. But there are ways that turn aside (such as Paganism, Judaism, Christianity). And had He willed, He would have guided you all (mankind)”

[al-Nahl 16:9]

What are the ways that separate people from the path of Allaah, and what is the way of Allaah?

What is the meaning of the hadeeth narrated by Ibn Mas’ood, according to which the Messenger (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) drew a line and said, “This is the path of guidance,” then he drew lines to its right and another to its left and said, “These are other paths and on each path there is a devil calling people to it”?

They answered:

There is no such thing in Islam as the tareeqahs that you mentioned, or anything else like them.

What there is in Islam is what is indicated by the two verses and the hadeeth that you quoted, and what was indicated by the hadeeth in which the Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) said:

The Jews split into seventy-one sects, and
The Christians split into seventy-two sects.

My ummah will split into seventy-three sects, all of which will be in Hell except one.” It was asked, “Who are they, O Messenger of Allaah?”

He said, “Those who follow the same path as I and my companions are on today.”

And he (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) said,

“A group among my ummah will continue to follow the truth and to be victorious, and they will not be harmed by those who forsake them or oppose them, until the command of Allaah comes to pass when they are like that.”

The truth lies in following the Qur’aan and the saheeh, unambiguous Sunnah of the Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam).
This is the path of Allaah, this is the Straight Path.
This is the straight line mentioned in the hadeeth of Ibn Mas’ood, and this is what was followed by the companions of the Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) (may Allaah be pleased with them and with their followers among the early generations (salaf) of this ummah, and with those who follow their path).

All other tareeqahs or groups are the paths mentioned in the verse (interpretation of the meaning):

“… and follow not (other) paths, for they will separate you away from His path…”

[al-An’aam 6:153]

Fataawa al-Lajnah al-Daa’imah, 2/283, 284

She wants to leave the land of disbelief

She wants to leave the land of disbelief and go back to her family, but they refused to let her do so. What should she do?

Fatwa4.jpgI am a young woman, twenty-three years old. I have been studying in Germany for four years. I used to live with my family in a Muslim Arab country, but after high school I travelled to join my brother who lives in this western country. After a while, my brother finished his studies, and because of his work he had to travel to another city, but I stayed in this city to study with my (female) friend with whom I live. I began to distribute pamphlets about Islam, calling people to the religion of Allah thereby, and I hope that Allah will bless me with a husband who will help me to continue this project. But I feel that remaining in this country to study without a mahram is a sin. So I decided, if Allah wills, to finally go back to my family, but my family emphatically refused and they are saying: How can you come back after we have spent so much money on you? Please note that I did not know that the Messenger (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) disavowed the Muslim who lives among the mushrikeen. I’m sorry for writing such a long message. Please advise me.
Praise be to Allah

For the Muslim to reside among the mushrikeen poses a grave danger, because of what there is in such environments of a lack of virtuous attitudes and deviation from sound human nature. No wise person who has knowledge of such environments will doubt what there is in them of negative effects on the Muslim who lives there.

Wise people should look at what Islam brought of rulings which seek to protect people’s religious commitment and honour, and they should hold fast to them and act upon them. That is better for them in terms of both this world and the hereafter. We see this noble Sahaabi woman, who lived in a pure and decent society, and she wanted to go to Makkah al-Mukarramah to perform the obligatory Hajj as enjoined by Allah, may He be exalted, but her husband wanted to go and fight for the sake of Allah, may He be exalted. So the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) did not allow her husband to go for jihad, and he instructed him to travel with his wife and be a mahram who could look after her whilst she performed Hajj. Al-Bukhaari (3006) and Muslim (1341) narrated from Ibn ‘Abbaas (may Allah be pleased with him) that he heard the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) say: “No man should be alone with a woman without there being a mahram present, and no woman should travel unless she has a mahram with her.” A man stood up and said: O Messenger of Allah, my wife has set out for Hajj and I have enlisted for such and such a campaign. He said: “Go and do Hajj with your wife.” If that was the shar‘i ruling at that time, with such good people and in such a pure environment, then what would be said about our own times, in a situation where a woman wants to travel to the land of disbelief on her own, and she wants to study in a mixed environment with the disbelievers, and to reside among them without any of her family present?!

The circumstances in which the questioner is living in that country makes us urge her and exhort her to insist on what she has decided to do, namely returning to her Muslim country and living among her family. For a single woman to live in a land of disbelief, and study in a mixed environment, when she has no family there to take care of her and look after her – all of that undoubtedly poses a danger to the religious commitment of that woman, except for one who is not aware of that situation or does not attach any significance to the danger that is posed to religious commitment and honour.

Your family should not regard what they have spent as an obstacle to your going back to them. They should reflect on the situation of those who have fallen into the clutches of the enemies of Islam and of good morals and sound human nature, both men and women in those countries, male and female students, and they should reflect on the consequences of that for their families and how those families are now prepared to spend all that is precious in order to put right what has been corrupted by those environments in their sons and daughters. Not everything that has been corrupted can be set right. The one who is blessed is the one who learns a lesson from others. Your father should understand that he will be questioned about you on the Day of Resurrection, for he is the shepherd of his household and he is responsible for it. Al-Bukhaari (853) and Muslim (1829) narrated that ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar said: I heard the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) say: “Each of you is a shepherd and each of you is responsible for his flock. The ruler is a shepherd and is responsible for his flock. A man is the shepherd of his household and is responsible for his flock.”

We ask Allah to guide your family to do that which is in their best interests in both religious and worldly terms, and to enable them to do that which Allah loves and is pleased with. Try to make sure that your return is with their approval, to the best of your ability. If you do not succeed in that, it is not permissible for you to obey them by staying there, and you must return to them. By doing so, you will please your Lord, may He be glorified and exalted, so do not worry about your family or anyone else being displeased with you. Understand that that state of affairs will not last for long, in sha Allah; your stance on this issue will be recorded to your credit, and they will eventually be pleased with you, and it will become clear to them that what you have done is undoubtedly the right thing. It was narrated that ‘Aa’ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) said: The Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “Whoever seeks to please Allah by displeasing the people, Allah, may He be exalted, will be pleased with him and will make the people pleased with him. But whoever seeks to please the people by displeasing Allah, Allah will be displeased with him and will make the people displeased with him.” Narrated by Ibn Hibbaan in his Saheeh (1/501); classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in as-Silsilah as-Saheehah (2311).

We ask Allah, may He be exalted, to make you steadfast, to enable you to do that which pleases Him, and to bless you with a righteous husband who will help you to practise your religion, and to bless you with righteous offspring, for He is All-Hearing, Ever Responsive.

And Allah knows best.

Commentary on the hadith which says that three men will fight for this treasure of yours, each of them the son of a caliph

What is your understanding of and commentary on the following hadith about the Mahdi, which was narrated on the website ad-Durar as-Saniyyah – al-Mawsoo‘ah al-Hadeethiyyah: “Three men will fight for this treasure of yours, each of them the son of a caliph, but none of them will gain it. Then the black banners will come from the east, and they will kill you in an unprecedented manner.” – Then he mentioned something – “When you see him, then pledge your allegiance to him even if you have to crawl over the snow, for that is the caliph of Allah, the Mahdi.”

Fatwa3.jpgNarrator: Thawbaan the freed slave of the Messenger of Allah.
Muhaddith: al-Bazzaar
Source: al-Bahr az-Zakhkhaar
Page or no.: 10/100
Status: Its isnaad is saheeh.

I hope that you can explain: what is this treasure? Who are the three men? Who is the caliph? Is the time when that will happen near at hand or far off? Who are the people of the black banners? Are they the Zoroastrian Persians in Iran (the Majoos)?

Praise be to Allah

Firstly:

Belief in the emergence of the Mahdi is part of the belief (‘aqeedah) of Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jamaa‘ah. There are numerous mutawaatir hadiths that speak of that, hence al-‘Allaamah al-Kattaani (may Allah have mercy on him) listed it among the mutawaatir hadiths that he compiled, and he narrated the verdict that the hadiths that the they had the switch speak of the Mahdi are mutawaatir from more than one scholar, such as Abu’l-Husayn al-Aabiri, the author of Manaaqib ash-Shaafa‘i, al-Haafiz as-Sakhkhaawi, and others. See: Nazm al-Mutanaathir min al-Hadeeth at-Mutawaatir (236-240).

In Fataawa al-Lajnah ad-Daa’imah (3/141) it says:

The hadiths that speak of the emergence of the Mahdi are many; they were narrated via many isnaads, and were narrated by a number of leading scholars of hadith. A number of scholars said that they are mutawaatir in meaning, such as Abu’l-Husayn al-Aabiri, a 4th century (AH) scholar; al-‘Allaamah as-Safaareeni in Lawaami‘ al-Anwaar al-Bahiyyah; al-‘Allaamah ash-Shawkaani in an essay entitled at-Tawdeeh fi Tawaatur Ahaadeeth al-Mahdi wa’d-Dajjaal wa’l-Maseeh.

What is meant by this Mahdi is not the person who the Raafidis say is alive at present, and they are waiting for him to emerge from the tunnel of Saamura’. That is a kind of crazy myth, and an idea that was instilled by the Shaytaan, because there is no evidence for it in the Qur’an or Sunnah, or in sound reasoning.

Secondly:

This hadith was narrated by the great Sahaabi Thawbaan (may Allah be pleased with him), who narrated that the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said:

“Three will fight one another for your treasure, each one of them the son of a caliph, but none of them will gain it. Then the black banners will come from the east, and they will kill you in an unprecedented manner.” Then he mentioned something that I do not remember, then he said: “When you see him, then pledge your allegiance to him even if you have to crawl over the snow, for that is the caliph of Allah, the Mahdi.”

Narrated by Ibn Maajah in as-Sunan (no. 4084); al-Bazzaar in al-Musnad (2/120); ar-Rooyaani (no. 619); al-Haakim in al-Mustadrak (4/510) – and via him by al-Bayhaqi in Dalaa’il an-Nubuwwah (6/515).

They narrated it via Sufyaan ath-Thawri, from Khaalid al-Hadhdha’, from Abu Qilaabah, from Abu Asma’, from Thawbaan, in a marfoo‘ report.

It was also narrated by al-Haakim and al-Bayhaqi – after the version quoted above – via ‘Abd al-Wahhaab ibn ‘Ata’, from Khaalid al-Hadhdha’, from Abu Qilaabah, from Abu Asma’, from Thawbaan, in a mawqoof report that stops at Thawbaan.

The scholars differed as to the verdict on this hadith; there are two views:

The first view is that the hadith is to be classed as saheeh (sound).

Al-Bazzaar (may Allah have mercy on him) said:

Something similar to this hadith was narrated with this wording via a different isnaad, and we only know this wording in this hadith, although most of the meaning of this hadith has been narrated (in other reports). We selected this hadith because it is saheeh and because Thawbaan is a man of dignity, and its isnaad is a saheeh isnaad. End quote.

Al-Haakim (may Allah have mercy on him) said:

This is a saheeh hadith according to the conditions of al-Bukhaari and Muslim. End quote. Adh-Dhahabi did not comment on it in his Talkhees.

Al-Haafiz Ibn Katheer (may Allah have mercy on him) said:

This is a saheeh, qawiy isnaad. End quote.

An-Nihaayah fi’l-Fitan wa’l-Malaahim (p. 17).

Ibn Katheer had a different view of the hadith; in al-Bidaayah wa’n-Nihaayah he thought it most likely to be mawqoof, as we shall see below.

It was classed as saheeh by al-Qurtubi in at-Tadhkirah (p. 1201), and by al-Boosayri in Misbaah az-Zujaajah (3/263).

It was classed as saheeh by Shaykh Hammood at-Tuwaijri (may Allah have mercy on him) in It-haaf al-Jamaa‘ah bima jaa’a fi’l-Fitan wa’l-Malaahim wa Ashraat as-Saa‘ah (2/187).

The second view is that the hadith is to be classed as da ‘eef (weak)

‘Abdullah ibn Ahmad ibn Hanbal said:

My father told me: Ibn ‘Aliyah was asked about this hadith, and said: Khaalid used to narrate it but no one paid any attention to it, because Ibn ‘Aliyah regarded its narration as da‘eef via this isnaad, i.e., the hadith of Khaalid, from Abu Qilaabah, from Abu Asma’, from Thawbaan, from the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him), which refers to the banners. End quote.

Al-‘Ilal (2/325).

Al-Haafiz Ibn Katheer (may Allah have mercy on him) said:

Some of them narrated it from Thawbaan and regarded it as mawqoof, and that is more likely to be the case. And Allah knows best. End quote.

Al-Bidaayah wa’n-Nihaayah (10/55)

Adh-Dhahabi (may Allah have mercy on him) said:

Ahmad said in his Musnad: Wakee‘ told us, from Shurayk, from ‘Ali ibn Zayd, from Abu Qilaabah, from Thawbaan: The Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “When you see the black banners coming from Khurasan, then come to them, even if you have to crawl over snow, for among them will be the caliph al-Mahdi.”

I – namely adh-Dhahabi – say: I think it is munkar (odd). It was also narrated by ath-Thawri and ‘Abd al-‘Azeez ibn al-Mukhtaar, from Khaalid al-Hadhdha’, from Abu Qilaabah, who said: from Asma’, from Thawbaan. End quote.

Mizaan al-I‘tidaal (3/128).

It was also regarded as problematic by Shaykh Muhammad Rasheed Rida (may Allah have mercy on him) in Tafseer al-Manaar (9/419-421).

Shaykh al-Albaani (may Allah have mercy on him) said:

(It is) munkar (odd) … Those who regarded it as saheeh failed to notice the problem in its isnaad, which is that Abu Qilaabah narrated it by saying “ ‘an” (from). He was one of those who resorted to tadlees [lit. deception – by saying “‘an (from)” giving the false impression that he had heard directly from someone when that was not the case], as quoted above from adh-Dhahabi and others. Perhaps this is why Ibn ‘Aliyah regarded the narration of this hadith with the isnaad of Khaalid as da‘eef, as was narrated from him by Ahmad in al-‘Ilal (1/356), and Ahmad concurred with that. But the hadith is saheeh (sound) in its meaning, apart from the phrase “for among them will be the caliph al-Mahdi.” End quote.

As-Silsilah ad-Da‘eefah (no. 85).

Thirdly:

There was also a difference of opinion concerning the meaning of the treasure mentioned in this hadith. Some said that it is the treasure of the Ka‘bah, and some said that it is the treasure that will be uncovered when the water level of the Euphrates drops, as is mentioned in the saheeh hadiths.

Shaykh Hammood at-Tuwaijri (may Allah have mercy on him) said:

Ibn Katheer said in an-Nihaayah:

What appears to be the case is that what is meant by the treasure mentioned in this context is the treasure of the Ka‘bah.

I – namely Shaykh at-Tuwaijri – say: There is some doubt about that, because of what was mentioned above in the chapter on the prohibition on provoking the Turks and the Ethiopians, that was narrated from ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr (may Allah be pleased with him), according to which the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: Leave the Ethiopians alone so long as they leave you alone, for no one will extract the treasure of the Ka‘bah except Dhu’s-Suwayqatayn from Ethiopia [Habashah, also known as Abyssinia].” Narrated by Abu Dawood and al-Haakim. He said: Its isnaad is saheeh; and adh-Dhahabi agreed with him in his Talkhees.

It was also narrated by Imam Ahmad from the hadith of Abu Umaamah ibn Sahl ibn Hunayf; its isnaad is jayyid.

It is more likely to be the case that the treasure mentioned in the hadith of Thawbaan (may Allah be pleased with him) is the treasure that will be uncovered when the water level of the Euphrates drops, or it may be something else. And Allah knows best. End quote.

It-haaf al-Jamaa‘ah bima jaa’a fi’l-Fitan wa’l-Malaahim wa Ashraat as-Saa‘ah, 2/187

This second view concerning what is meant by the treasure was mentioned by al-Haafiz Ibn Hajar (may Allah have mercy on him) as a possibility, then he said:

That is if what is meant by the treasure is the treasure mentioned in the hadith about the receding waters of the Euphrates uncovering a mountain of gold, which indicates that this will only happen when the Mahdi emerges, which will definitely occur before the descent of ‘Eesa and the emergence of the fire [which will drive the people to the place of gathering].

Fath al-Baari (13/81).

Fourthly:

We have not come across anyone who stated what is meant by the three men and the caliph in the hadith. Similarly, there is nothing in the saheeh hadiths to indicate that this will happen at the time of the emergence of the Mahdi. However the texts indicate that the Islamic caliphate will be restored before the onset of the Hour, as in the hadith in which the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “O son of Hawaalah, if you see the caliphate appear in the holy land, then the time of earthquakes, calamities and momentous events has drawn nigh, and on that day the Hour will be closer to the people than these two hands of mine are to your head.

Narrated by Abu Dawood from the hadith of ‘Abdullah ibn Hawaalah al-Azdi (may Allah be pleased with him) (no. 2535); Ahmad in al-Musnad (5/288); and by al-Haakim in al-Mustadrak (4/471) – he classed it as saheeh and adh-Dhahabi agreed with him. Also classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh Sunan Abi Dawood (no. 2535)

Perhaps the Mahdi will appear at the time of one of these caliphs

See: al-Mahdi wa Fiqh Ashraat as-Saa‘ah by Dr. Muhammad Ismaa‘eel al-Muqaddim (p. 728 ff).

See also: Fataawa al-Lajnah ad-Daa’imah (3/140), fatwa no. 1615, and the answer to question no. 3259.

Fifthly:

The people with the black banners are not the Persian Zoroastrians in Iran (the Majoos). Rather what the apparent meaning of the hadith may indicate is that they are people from the east who will support the Mahdi, strengthen his authority and establish his dominion, and their banners will be black. All of this is assuming that the hadith which mentions them is proven to be sound and known.

Al-Haafiz Ibn Katheer (may Allah have mercy on him) said:

These black banners are not those with which Abu Muslim al-Khurasani came and took away power from the Umayyads in 132 AH. Rather they are other black banners that will accompany the Mahdi, who will be Muhammad ibn ‘Abdullah al-‘Alawi al-Faatimi al-Hasani (may Allah be pleased with him). Allah will prepare him in one night; that is, He will forgive him, guide him, make him understand and grant him wisdom, after he was not like that, and He will support him with people from the east who will help him, strengthen his authority and establish his dominion, and their banners will also be black. End quote.

An-Nihaayah fi’l-Fitan wa’l-Malaahim (1/49); Kitaab al-Fitan by al-Mirwazi (1/310); It-haaf al-Jamaa‘ah by Shaykh Hammood at-Tuwaijri (1/286 ff)

And Allah knows best.

Friday, August 14, 2015

Guidelines on women working outside the home

Guidelines on women working outside the home

tumblr_nszpn5K8VF1qapk2qo1_500.jpgFirstly:

The basic principle is that a woman should remain at home, and not go out except for necessary purposes.

Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“And stay in your houses, and do not display yourselves like that of the times of ignorance” [al-Ahzaab 33:33].

Although this is addressed to the wives of the Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam), it also applies to the believing women.

It is only addressed to the wives of the Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) because of their honour and status with the Messenger of Allaah (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam), and because they are examples for the believing women.

The Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) said:

“Woman is ‘awrah, and if she goes out, the shaytaan raises his hopes (of misguiding her). She is never closer to Allaah than when she stays in her house.” Narrated by Ibn Hibbaan and Ibn Khuzaymah; classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in al-Silsilah al-Shaheehah, no. 2688.

And he (Sallallahu alaihi w asallam) said concerning a woman’s prayer in the mosque: “Their houses are better for them.” Narrated by Abu Dawood (567) and classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh Abi Dawood.

Secondly:

It is permissible for a woman to go out of her house for work, but that is subject to certain conditions. If they are met, it is permissible for her to go out. They are:
That she needs to work in order to acquire the money she needs, as in your case.
The work should be suited to the nature of woman, such as medicine, nursing, teaching, sewing, and so on.
The work should be in a place that is only for women, and there should be no mixing with non-mahram men.
Whilst at work she should observe complete shar’i hijab.
Her work should not lead to her travelling without a mahram.
Her going out to work should not involve committing any haraam action, such as being alone with the driver, or wearing perfume where non-mahrams can smell it.
That should not lead to her neglecting things that are more essential for her, such as looking after her house, husband and children.

Shaykh Muhammad ibn Saalih al-‘Uthaymeen said:

The field in which a woman works should be only for women, such as if she works in teaching girls, whether in administration or technical support, or she works at home as a seamstress sewing clothes for women and so on.
As for working in fields that are for men, this is not permissible for her because it requires her to mix with men, which is a great fitnah (source of temptation and trouble) and should be avoided.
It should be noted that it is proven that the Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) said: “I have not left behind me any fitnah that is more harmful to men than women; the fitnah of the Children of Israel had to do with women.”
So the man should keep his family away from places of fitnah and its causes in all circumstances. End quote.

Fataawa al-Mar’ah al-Muslimah (2/981)

If these conditions are met in your work, then there is nothing wrong with you doing it in sha Allaah.

We ask Allaah to grant you a righteous husband, for He is able to do that.

And Allaah knows best.

My advice to my brothers is not to let their women go to swimming pools.

Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allah have mercy on him) was asked:

tumblr_nj9d4yyv3w1qj9bzko1_540.jpg We live in a residential neighbourhood where there is a women’s centre; at this centre there is a swimming pool for women and a sauna. What is the ruling on women going to this centre?

He replied:

My advice to my brothers is not to let their women go to swimming pools and sports clubs because the Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) encouraged women to stay at home.

Moreover, if a woman becomes accustomed to that she will become very attached to it because she is subject to her emotions, and in that case she will become distracted from her religious or worldly duties and she will always be talking about these activities in gatherings.

And if the woman does such things that will be a cause of her losing sense of shame and modesty, and if a woman loses her sense of shame and modesty do not ask about the evil consequences except for the one whom Allah blesses by guiding her and enabling her to regain the modesty that was taken away from her.

I will close my message by repeating my advice to my believing brothers not to let their daughters, sisters, wives or other female relatives under their guardianship go to these centres or clubs.

End quote from the shaykh’s fatwas for ad-Da‘wah magazine no. 1765/54

Saturday, August 8, 2015

Advice to the student of knowledge

By Shaykh ‘Abdullaah bin ‘Abdir-Raheem al-Bukhaaree

Teachings2.jpgHe asks, “May Allaah reward you with good. The student of knowledge is supposed to study the small books first, but in the university we study from the advanced books straight away. What is your advice to a student who is not firmly grounded in knowledge and is required to learn from this schoolbook?”

Generally speaking, the one who says that he is supposed to study the small books first: he is supposed to advance gradually in seeking knowledge. Not the small [books first]. Not every small [book] is studied first. Not every small book is suitable to be studied first. No! And I don’t know this questioner’s scale for small and big.

Rather, that which is obligatory upon the student of knowledge, when he wants to follow the path of the Scholars in attaining knowledge, is that he advances gradually in the sciences and that he advances gradually in seeking knowledge. This is the first thing.

Secondly: that he advances gradually in one science [at a time]. You say [to this]: “O Shaykh, when will we be able to accomplish something?” We say: Yes! If you waste your time in ‘Qeel wa Qaal’ (it was said and he said), in going and returning, and most of the time you’re asleep or writing on the internet, participating [in discussions], answering, taking, giving and preventing… You don’t even seek knowledge! You don’t sleep except that you are like an drugged and knocked down person! Then he misses the prayers and the congregational prayers, and then he comes and says that the congregational prayer isn’t obligatory and that sleeping is not negligence. And he comes with these excuses that don’t apply to him.

Hard work [is achieved] by effort and deprivation is by laziness. So work hard, then you will soon accomplish your goal.

It is obligatory that you strive to attain knowledge, that you follow the path of its people, that you are patient upon that and that you follow the correct path. And we have spoken about this repeatedly.

Trust me completely, by Allaah, if you are truthful to Allaah in your desire to attain knowledge so as to worship Him – the Majestic and Most High – upon baseerah (insight, sure knowledge) and to aid His Religion, by Allaah, then Allaah will give you success. By Allaah! And He will bless you in your time, and even in your age! And that is not difficult for Allaah! And the proofs are there! So don’t say that [only] the Salaf in the past were like this.

And there are still Scholars now whom Allaah has blessed in their time and in their knowledge. This is al-‘Allaamah, the Shaykh of our Shaykhs, Shaykh Haafidh al-Hakamee – may Allaah have mercy upon him. When did he die? How old was he [when he died]? Around 36 years. And he was a proficient scholar and a verifying writer! We aren’t [only] speaking about times and generations that are long ago and far away. The same applies to the present! But whoever is truthful to Allaah, then Allaah will be truthful to him (i.e. He will give him what he wants)!

Perfect wisdomopen original article

Extract from Ibn Al Qayyim’s book “Al-Fawaa’id”:

Teachings2.jpg He who did nor make use of his eye, did not make use of his ear.
The servant has a veil between him and Allaah and another one between him and people. Whoever tore his veil between him and Allaah, Allaah will tear the veil between him and the people.
The servant has a Lord that he will stand in front of and a house that he will live in, so he must seek the pleasure of Allaah before meeting Him and he should furnish his house before moving into it.
Losing time is harder than death, as loosing time keeps you away from Allaah and the Hereafter, while death keeps you away from the worldly life and your people.
The whole world from its beginning until its end is not worth an hour of sadness, so what about the sadness of a whole life?
What we love today will catch up with what we hate tomorrow, and what we hate today will catch up with what we love tomorrow
The most precious reward during life is to busy yourself with the most suitable and useful matters in their exact and suitable time. How can he be rational who sells Paradise and what is in it, for one hour of passing pleasure.
The pious man will leave this worldly life while he did not obtain satisfaction in two matters: crying for himself and praising Allaah.
If you are afraid of any creature, you will run away from it. When you are afraid of Allaah, you will love Him and seek to be close to Him.
If knowledge is useful without actions, Allaah, the Exalted would never have dispraised the people of the book, and if actions were useful without devotion, He would never have dispraised the hypocrites.
Stand firm against evil thoughts, for if you fail to do so, they will become ideas, if you do not, they will become desires, so fight against them. If you do not then they will become a form of determination and intention, if you do not resist, they will become actions, and if you do not follow them up with their opposite, they will become habits that will be hard to quit.

Reminder

Blog Archive

Qur'an Exegesis

News