Tuesday, May 31, 2016

Is It Correct To Obligate A Person To Follow A Tabdi (A Decleration From A Scholar That An Individual Has Become An Innovator) – Shaykh Ahmad An-Najjar

Shaykh Ahmad An-Najjar said, “From among the incorrect foundational principles adopted by some people [i.e. some Salafis] is to compel people [other Salafis] to accept the ruling of tabdi (that another Muslim is an innovator) and they specify this [incorrect understanding] to a specific shaykh or a group of shaykhs.

Subsequently, one who does not do tabdi of so-and-so who has been declared to be an innovator is:

1) branded an innovator or
2) he is to be advised or
3) flagged up as one to be avoided.

Some of them attempt to delude and base their attribution upon the existence of evidence.

Thus they say, “That as long as the shaykh in question [i.e. the shaykh doing the refuting] puts forth evidence, he cannot be opposed.” As such, the standard for responding to the charge of tabdi upon so-and-so shaykh is to respond to his evidence.

This is delusion since the focus of the matter is being shifted elsewhere as they assume that the truth lies absolutely with the shaykh who is ascribing innovation to the other and that the evidence is exactly in
accordance with his words – while it is always possible that the matter is not as such.

Even if we assume that the truth lies with him absolutely and the evidence is completely in accordance with his words, isn’t it possible that the addressee has doubts about it? Or that he has interpreted the text according to his own opinion?

If that is so, how can one compel him to do tabdi? Also how can he be considered an innovator [due to not following the tabdi of the shaykh doing the refuting]?!!

From this it is understood that compulsion to follow a tabdi can only be considered valid in restricted
circumstances which are as follows:

1. The innovator has violated a principle from among the [agreed upon] principles of the Ahlu Sunnah and an argument has been demonstrated against him [proving] without any doubt remaining [that he did violate an agreed upon principle of Ahlu Sunnah].

Therefore, this condition does not apply to the one who has not violated any principle and no argument has been demonstrated against him [proving he broke any principle of Ahlu Sunnah].

2. An argument has been demonstrated against the one who is supposed to be declared an innovator and no doubt remains [that he did do an act of innovation, make statement of innovation or express an innovated belief].

This is with regard to ascribing the act of innovation to someone.

In regards to keeping company and maintaining contact [with either of the individuals outlined in points 1 and 2 above], this is connected to what’s most beneficial.

[There is no complusion in following a tabdi excpect in the two cases indicated above. Unfortunately some Salafis hold a person is always compelled to a follow a tabdi no matter the case, as long as the tabdi came from a Salafi scholar they trust or a group of Salafi scholars they trust].

But sufficient to refute this false principle, which is to compel a person to make tabdi is the following:

This principle is nullified:

The scholars of Bukhari and likewise Imam Muslim did not accept the statements of al-Dhahali which he had made regarding Imam Bukhari.

Al-Dhahali had criticized the latter [Imam Bukhari] verbally and he (al-Dhahali) was an Imam from among the Imams of Ahlu Sunnah. He was also an Imam of Biographical Evaluation (Jarh Wal Tadeel).

Even though he was a verified scholar of jarh wa tadeel, his statements [with regard to Imam Bukhari] were not taken into consideration.

It has been related in Siyar Aʿlām al-Nubalā’ (463/12) “After that, Mohammad bin Yahya al-Dhahali wrote to Khalid bin Ahmad, the emir of Bukhara the following: ‘Indeed, this man has openly violated the Sunnah.’

He publicly read his letter in front of the people of Bukhara. They said, ‘We shall not abandon him [i.e. Imam Bukhari].’ The emir [of Bukhara] therefore expelled him [Dhahali] from the city and as a result, he left.”

The reality of those who compel the people to make tabdi is that they consider the words of those who are fallible [i.e. a certain small select group of Salafi soholars some in their behaviour even extended this to certain Salafi students of knowledge] akin to the words of those who are infallible [the prophets and messengers].

Similarly, they assess the words of those who are fallible [i.e. certain Salafi scholars and certain Salafi students of knowledge] in a way the words of the infallible [prophets and messengers] are supposed to be assessed. This is a dangerous pitfall.

The correct approach is that the words of the fallible [i.e. certain Salafi scholars and students of knowledge] should be conformant to those of the infallible [prophets and messengers], not the opposite.

Ibn Taymiyyah says: ‘The words of scholars are conformant to the word of Allah the Almighty and His Messenger (peace be upon him). The word of Allah the Almighty and His Messenger (peace be upon him) is not conformant to their words.’

…The best evidence that those who compel people to make tabdi can argue with is by utilising what has been narrated from certain [individuals ftom the] salaf wherein they have warned against accompanying those who stay in the company of innovators since they too are party to innovation and so on.

Due to their [i.e. those who hold the view a person can be compelled in following a tabdi] ignorance, they hang on to such words and choose to ignore the meanings which have been derived from such warnings and the wisdom intended from them.

They narrate [these type of] traditions very well but do not understand them correctly. These narrations are concerning those who – know that a person is an innovator and despite that continued to remain in his companionship and maintain loyalty towards him without any religious
cause or justifiable excuse.

Therefore, one who accompanies and befriends those who he is supposed to be distanced from [due to them being innovators]; due to the lack of benefit pertaining to being in their companionship, then they are doing so:

1. Either out of ignorance, whereupon this man shall explain to him and advise him regarding the dangers of remaining in their companionship. Ayyub [an individual from the Salaf] said: “Saʿid Bin Jubayr saw me sitting with Talq Bin Habib [an innovator] whereupon he said emphatically, ‘Do not sit with him.'”

2. Or the reason for him accompanying them is that he conforms to their innovations but conceals his beliefs, as such, he is to be considered from among them.

It has been related from Ibn Masʿud that he said: “Indeed, a man walks side by side with and befriends those whom he loves and those who are like him.”

This is not merely regarding accompaniment and sitting together since if it were as such, none of the imams would have remained on the correct path except those whom Allah willed [as sometimes some of the imams would sit with innovators – for the sake of Allah – in order to call these people to the way of Ahlu Sunnah and warn them against the innovations they fell into].

If the scope for warning [against an individual from Ahlu Sunnah was simply based on] who remained in the company of an innovator or one who has been declared to be an innovator was merely sitting together, no respected shaykh [from Ahlu Sunnah past or present] would have remained on the true path.

We [the Salafi students of knowledge] see them [the scholars of As-Salafiyyah] in the Islamic University [of Madeenah in Saudi Arabia]* shaking hands, having a laugh, discussing and hugging those who they view as innovators.” Ref: Brixtonmasjid.co.uk

Footnote:

* The Islamic University mentioned here may not be Madeenah university.

Posted by Abdul Kareem Ibn Ozzie

Ramadan: An Invaluable Opportunity for the Youth - III

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5 – Night Prayer:

Night Prayer is a confirmed Sunnah (Prophetic tradition), especially in Ramadan.  Taraaweeh prayer is performed in congregation in the mosques on the nights of Ramadan. One should be keen to attend all the Taraaweeh prayers until the Imaam finishes in order to gain the reward of praying the whole night. The Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, said: “If a man prays with the Imaam until he finishes, it will be counted as if he had prayed the whole night.” [Abu Daawood, An-Nasaa’i, At-Tirmithi and Ibn Maajah] [At-Tirmithi: Hasan Saheeh]

6 - Charity:

Charity in Ramadan has extra virtues and merits than in other months. The Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, was especially charitable in Ramadan; he was more generous than the fast wind that brings rain. So be keen on giving charity generously in this month.

7 – Offering fasting people meals to break their fast:

One should be keen to offer meals to fasting people and offer food to the poor and the needy. The Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, said:
“He who gives food to a fasting person to break his fast, will receive the same reward as him.” [Ahmad and At-Trmithi [At-Tirmithi : Saheeh]

8 – Going to the mosques frequently:

Mosques are the b
est places on earth. Therefore, Muslims should strive to attend all the prayers in congregation at the mosque. They should also stay at the mosques waiting for one prayer after the other. They should perform voluntary prayers; for they complete and make up for the deficiency of obligatory ones and entail earning the love of Allah The Almighty. The Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, narrated in a Hadeeth Qudsi (sacred narration): “My slave keeps on coming closer to Me through performing Nawaafil (praying or doing extra deeds besides what is obligatory) till I love him.” [Al-Bukhari]

9 – Performing ‘Umrah in Ramadan:

Performing ‘Umrah in Ramadan has a great virtue. The Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, said: Performing ‘Umrah in Ramadan is equivalent to Hajj – or Hajj with me (in reward). [Al-Bukhari]

10 - The last ten nights of Ramadan:

Dear young man, you should strive in worship during the
last ten nights of Ramadan more than the entire month. According to a narration, With the start of the last ten days of Ramadan, the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, used to tighten his girdle (i.e. work hard and strive in worship), and used to pray all night, and used to awaken his family for prayers.” [Al-Bukhari and Muslim]

 11 - The Night of Al-Qadr:

Seek the Night of Al-Qadr in the last ten nights of Ramadan, especially on the odd-numbered nights. Spend those nights in worship; performing prayers, reciting the Quran, Thikr (remembrance of Allah The Almighty), supplication and other such acts of worship. The reward of worship on that night is better than the reward of worship in a thousand months that do not have the Night of Al-Qadr within them.

12 - Lowering one’s gaze:

Lowering the gaze from looking at what is forbidden is an act of worship that only a few Muslims carry out nowadays, so why do you not revive this great act of worship?

13 - Thikr:

Recite Thikr and remember Allah The Exalted at all times. Indeed, those who recite Thikr and remember Allah The Exalted have often won the rewards of both this
world and the Hereafter.

14 - Supplication:

Supplication is the essence of worship. It is the evidence on man’s need for his Lord and submission to Him at all times. Allah The Exalted referred to supplication as “worship” when He Says (what means): {And your Lord says, "Call upon Me; I will respond to you." Indeed, those who disdain My worship will enter Hell [rendered] contemptible.} [Quran 40:60]

15 – I‘tikaaf:

I‘tikaaf means staying in seclusion in the mosque for the purpose of worshipping Allah The Almighty. Do not waste your days of I‘tikaaf in idle talk or trivial deeds, otherwise, it would have been better if you did not observe I‘tikaaf in the first place!

16 - Food and Drink:

Beware of excess in eating and drinking; this incurs complacency, apathy, and laziness in worship.

17 - Evils that should be avoided:

- Abstaining from smoking during the daytime in Ramadan indicates the strength of your willpower. So why do you not quit smoking altogether throughout the whole day and night?

- Beware of listening to music for it corrupts the heart and fosters frivolity and lack of commendable zeal.

- Make the month of Ramadan an opportunity to free yourself from the captivity of watching TV serials, movies, and trivial contests and programs.

- Beware of excessive joking and laughter; as they engender hardness of the heart and negligence of remembering Allah The Exalted.

- Do not accompany wicked and impious people, because if you accompany them, you will soon be like them.

- The most evil places on earth are the markets; so beware of going there for no need.

- Avoid staying in seclusion or mixing with marriageable women; this is one of the gravest evils that incurs corruption and collective punishments.

- Beware of the evils of the tongue, for they undermine the rewards of fasting. The Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, said: Whoever does not give up false speech and evil actions, Allah Is not in need of his leaving his food and drink (i.e. Allah will not accept his fasting.)  [Al-Bukhari]

Ramadan: An Invaluable Opportunity for the Youth - I

Ramadan: An Invaluable Opportunity for the Youth - II

Monday, May 30, 2016

Ramadan: An Invaluable Opportunity for the Youth - II

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Examples of the diligence of the righteous predecessors:

These are some bright examples that highlight the diligence of the righteous predecessors in worshipping and obeying Allah The Exalted. Perhaps pondering over them would raise our morale and motivate us to perform extra acts of worship.


1 – The Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, used to pray at night until his feet
were swollen. When he was asked about it [although his past and future sins were forgiven], he, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, said: “Should I not be a thankful slave?” [Al-Bukhari and Muslim]

2 - Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, used to weep profusely, especially in prayer and when reciting the Noble Quran.

3 – ‘Umar, may Allah be pleased with him, had two dark lines etched on his cheeks because of his frequent weeping
.

4 – ‘Uthmaan, may Allah be pleased with him, used to recite the Noble Quran in full in one Rak‘ah (unit of prayer).

5 – ‘Ali, may Allah be pleased with him, used to cry in his private room for prayer until his beard became wet with tears. He used to say, “O
world! Go and beguile somebody else. I have divorced you thrice, an irrevocable divorce.”

6 – Qataadah, may Allah have mercy upon him, used to recite the Noble Quran in full in seven days, and in Ramadan in three days, and once on each night of the last ten nights of Ramadan.

7 – Sufyaan Ath-Thawri, may Allah have mercy upon him, used to
cry tears of blood out of his fear of Allah The Almighty.


8 –
Sa‘eed ibn Al-Musayyib, may Allah have mercy upon him, used to go to the mosque regularly. He did not miss a prayer in congregation for forty years!

The traders of this world spare no effort in seizing any opportunity and doing whatever it takes to gain huge profits. Why do you not trade with Allah The Exalted? Why do you not compete in performing acts of worship and righteous deeds in order to earn the abundant profits and great rewards from Allah The Almighty?

Ramadan is one of the greatest opportunities that should be seized and fully utilized. It is a great season of rewards for which one should prepare himself. Observant  people should not lose sight of such a great opportunity. Ramadan is the month of forgiveness, the month of winning
Paradise, and the month of salvation from Hellfire. It is the optimal season for those who have sound and pure hearts, righteous faculties [that abstain from doing what is forbidden], and who do not waste their time in doing harmful or useless actions.

These are some tips that would help you to make full use of this blessed month and spend it in carrying out righteous deeds:

1 - Fasting is an act of worship and not just a custom:

The Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, said:
“Whoever observes fasts during the month of Ramadan out of sincere faith, and hoping to attain The rewards of Allah, then all his past sins will be forgiven. [Al-Bukhari and Muslim]

This means that one should fast Ramadan out of his faith in Allah The Exalted and in His rewards for fasting. He should aspire to gain these rewards and not out of showing off or ostentation, or to gain money or prestige.

2 - Ramadan is a blessing and one should be grateful for it:

Think of those who have died before Ramadan. They can no longer carry out righteous deeds and their records of deeds have been closed for good. They cannot earn any reward or carry out a good deed, as simple as it might be.

Unlike them, Allah The Exalted extended your life until you witnessed Ramadan and He granted you the opportunity to earn all these abundant rewards. Indeed, this is a blessing that entails showing thankfulness and praise to Allah The Exalted.

3 - Sleeping and Staying up:

If you spend the days in Ramadan sleeping and waste its nights in frivolity, you would have deprived yourself of the rewards of fasting and night prayer. You may come out of the month empty-handed. Indeed, it is only a few days and memorable nights and the blessed month of Ramadan will end in an instant. Hence, one should strive in worship and devote his time to carry out acts of worship and good deeds in order to earn pleasure and bliss in the Hereafter. Beware of spending the month of Ramadan in heedlessness. The Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, said:
“Let the nose of that person be smeared with dust who has the opportunity to witness the month of Ramadan and it ends without being forgiven.” [At-Tirmithi and Al-Haakim] [Al-Albaani: Saheeh]

4 - Recitation of the Noble Quran:

Ramadan is the month of the Quran. The righteous predecessors used to strive in reciting the Noble Quran in Ramadan and gave it precedence over any other act of worship. Some of them used to recite the Noble Quran in full every night! So do your best in reciting the Quran during the blessed month of Ramadan, observing the due obligations of the recitation and rules of Tajweed to the best of your abilities.

Ramadan: An Invaluable Opportunity for the Youth - I

Ramadan: An Invaluable Opportunity for the Youth - III

Ramadan: An Invaluable Opportunity for the Youth - I

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I would like to address my words to you, as an elder brother speaking to his beloved younger brother; as a loving friend speaking to a friend he cares about, and as advice from someone who wishes you nothing but goodness and success in life.

How have you prepared yourself for the month of Ramadan? Indeed, Ramadan is a blessed month when the gates of Paradise are opened, the gates of Hellfire are closed, the devils are chained up, and during this time Allah The Exalted frees His pious slaves from Hellfire.

Have you resolved to repent to Allah The Exalted in Ramadan? Have you decided to go back to your Lord? Have you made the intention to abstain from committing all sinful and evil acts and turn over a new leaf in Ramadan? Have you formulated a plan of daily worship in this blessed month? How are you planning to receive the days and nights of Ramadan?
These questions need to be answered sincerely, honestly, and frankly so that the month of Ramadan does not end before you perform any acts of worship or righteous deeds, with its days and hours wasted in vain.
Start with repentance:
I am not accusing you of being a sinner when I advise you to repent to your Lord. Indeed, repentance is the beginning and the ending point on the straight path. It is the refined status which many people lack in all the stages of their migration to Allah The Exalted.

Repentance is not only for sinners and those who mix good and bad deeds, as many people think. The Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, who was the leader of the obedient slaves and devout worshippers, said:
“O people, seek repentance from Allah. Verily, I seek repentance from Him a hundred times a day.” [Muslim]
When Allah The Exalted commanded His slaves to repent to Him, He called them believers. Allah The Exalted Says (what means): {… And turn to Allah in repentance, all of you, O believers, that you might succeed.} [Quran 24:31]
Indeed, we all have committed sins and wrongdoings. Who among us does not sin? Who does not disobey Allah The Almighty?

We all commit sins, yet Allah The Exalted is The All-Forgiving. The doors of repentance to Allah are always open. He stretches out His hand at night for those who sinned during the day to repent, and stretches out His hand during the day for those who sinned at night to repent until the time the sun shall rise from where it normally sets. Allah The Exalted rejoices at the repentance of the remorseful sinners. The Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, said: “Allah has opened a door of repentance in the west the breadth of which is seventy years and it will not close as long as the sun does not rise from the west.” [Ahmad and At-Tirmithi] [At-Tirmithi: Hasan Saheeh]
Repentance is an easy and simple act that involves no suffering or hard work. It is a simple three-step process. The sinner should refrain from committing the sin, show remorse for committing it in the past and resolve not to commit it again in the future.

If you regret your misdeeds in the past and abstain from sins in the future, then you should assign greater attention and care to cultivate your life and make full use of your present. If you lose your present, you lose your happiness and salvation, yet if you treasure it, you will attain happiness, salvation, comfort, pleasure, and bliss.

Imaam Ibn Al-Jawzi, may Allah have mercy upon him, said,
The importance of time:
I have seen most people waste their time in an extremely strange way. If the night is long, they spend it in idle conversation or in reading useless books. If the day is long, they sleep and spend part of their day on the banks of the Tigris or in markets. These people are like passengers on a ship who are talking to one another while the ship is running with them and they are unaware. A few people have understood the meaning of existence; therefore, they spend their lives preparing for their departure… So, one should hasten to work hard in the seasons of rewards before it is too late.”
He, may Allah have mercy upon him, also said:
lethargy, provided that such diligence does not undermine his physical ability to do more good deeds. 
“A person should know the significance and worth of his time. He should not waste a moment of his life in doing anything that would not bring him closer to his Lord. He should carry out the best of deeds and utter the best of words. He should maintain his sincere intention to do good deeds without
The righteous predecessors were in a race against time in their lives. A man said to ‘Aamir ibn ‘Abd Qays, may Allah have mercy upon him, “Come and chat with me for a while.” ‘Aamir ibn ‘Abd Qays, may Allah have mercy upon him, answered, “Stop time first.”
A group of people visited one of the righteous predecessors while he was praying, although he was dying. They remonstrated with him for doing so, at which he said, “My record of deeds is being folded now.”
If a person knows that death will soon put an end to his life and that he would not be able to do any righteous deeds, he will work diligently in what is left of his life to benefit him in his afterlife.

Ramadan: An Invaluable Opportunity for the Youth - II

Ramadan: An Invaluable Opportunity for the Youth - III

Tuesday, May 3, 2016

“Wage War And Make Mischief” – Surah 5:33

Kaleef K. Karim

5:33 Indeed, the penalty for those who wage war against Allah and His Messenger and strive upon earth [to cause] corruption (mischief) is none but that they be killed or crucified or that their hands and feet be cut off from opposite sides or that they be exiled from the land. That is for them a disgrace in this world; and for them in the Hereafter is a great punishment,

5:34 Except for those who return [repenting] before you apprehend them. And know that Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.

This verse (Q. 5:33) is often quoted by some that it sanctions the killing of innocents. This in reality is not true. Some of these critics also claim that the verse is very ‘vague’, and what does Allah mean by ‘making mischief (or corruption) in the land’? Could ‘criticism of Islam’ or being too ‘westernised’ be punishable by death? The answer is no. Some of those who make these claims are very ignorant and have not studied our Islamic sources what ‘mischief’ in the passage (Q. 5:33) entails. They are fond of spreading misinformation and misguide innocent people.

In order to understand this particular verse (Q 5:33), we have to go back to Prophet Muhammed’s life-time, with the historical sources available to us, and find out how it was interpreted by the Muslims then.

Background

Some of the earliest to modern exegesis say that this verse (Q. 5:33) was revealed in connection with a group of people who came to Madinah, they ate, rested and later in the day robbed and butchered an innocent shepherd to pieces. These criminals decapitated the shepherd(s), gouged their eyes out (Al-Tabari, Tafsir al-Jalalayn, Tafsir Ibn kathir, and Asbab Al-Nuzul by Al-Wahidi). After they fled, they also went on to rape women.

Historical Context For 5:33

We are told that from a number of reports that go back to when Prophet Muhammed (p) was alive, that this particular verse (5:33) was revealed in connection with some people who came from Ukil (or Urayna) to Madinah, and asked the Prophet for some food and drink. The prophet told them to go with his shepherd nearby and they will be fed.

The sources further say, once they were fed and rested properly, they killed the shepherd and robbed all the camels. Upon news reaching the Prophet (p), he despatched his companions to capture these criminals. Sahih al-Bukhari:

“A group of eight men from the tribe of ‘Ukil came to the Prophet and then they found the climate of Medina unsuitable for them. So, they said, “O Allah’s Messenger! Provide us with some milk.” Allah’s Apostle said, “I recommend that you should join the herd of camels.” So they went and drank the urine and the milk of the camels (as a medicine) till they became healthy and fat. Then they killed the shepherd and drove away the camels, and they became unbelievers after whey were Muslims. When the Prophet was informed by a shouter for help, he sent some men in their pursuit, and before the sun rose high, they were brought, and he had their hands and feet cut off. … (Abu Qilaba, a sub-narrator said, “They committed murder and theft and fought against Allah and His Apostle, and spread evil in the land.”) (Sahih al-Bukhari volume 4, Book 52, Hadith 261)

Sahih Muslim:

“Eight men of the tribe of ‘Ukl came to Allah’s Messenger and swore allegiance to him on Islam, but found the climate of that land uncogenial to their health and thus they became sick, and they made complaint of that to Allah’s Messenger, and he said: Why don’t you go to (the fold) of our camels along with our shepherd, and make use of their milk… They said: Yes. They set out and drank their (camels’) milk … and regained their health. They killed the shepherd and drove away the camels. This (news) reached Allah’s Messenger and he sent them on their track and they were caught and brought to him (the Holy Prophet). He commanded about them, and (thus) their hands and feet were cut…” (Sahih Muslim Book 16, Hadith 4131) [1] [2] [3]

 

Some of the details in regards to this event might be hard to stomach for a modern reader, how these criminals were killed. But one has to keep in mind, the punishment meted out was exactly what they did to the victims and worse. The following historical reports give us further details surrounding this incident, which was not mentioned in the previous citations, on what these criminals did to the victims.

Kitab al-tabaqat al-Kabir – Ibn Sa’d:

“THE SARIYYAH OF KURZ IBN JABIR AL-FIHRI TOWARDS AL-URANIYINS
Then (occurred) the sariyyah of Kurz Ibn Jabir al-Fihri towards al-Uraniyun in Shawwal of the sixth year from the hijrah of the Apostle of Allah. They (narrators) said: A party of the Uraynah numbering eight came to the Apostle of Allah, and embraced Islam but the climate of al-Madinah did not suit them. Thereupon the Apostle of Allah ordered them to live with his milch-camels which used to graze at Dhu al-Jadr in the vicinity of Quba close to Ayr at a distance of six miles from al-Madinah. They remained there till they recuperated and became fat. One morning they made a raid on the milch camels and drove them away. Yasar, the mawla of the Apostle of Allah, confronted them. He fought with them. They cut his hands and feet and pricked thorns in his tongue and eyes. Consequently he died. The news of this incident reached the Apostle of Allah. He sent twenty horsemen to pursue them and appointed Kurz Ibn Jabir al-Fijri their leader. They reached there, and surrounded them. They captured them, tied them, and seating tem on their horses they brought them to al-Madinah. The Apostle of Allah was at al-Ghabah. They set out with them towards him and met him at al-Zaghabah, the place where flood water came from all directions. He gave orders and their hands and feet were amputated, their eyes extracted. They were crucified. Then the verse was revealed to the Apostle of Allah. ‘The only reward of those who make war upon Allah and his Messenger and strive after corruption in the land.’ – Al-Qur’an, 5:33 …” [4]

Tabari:

“Abd al-Malik Ibn Marwan wrote a letter to Anas Ibn Malik, was asking him about this verse (i.e., Quran 5:33). Then Anas responded with a letter to him informing him that this verse was revealed concerning those group of Uraniyyun (or Ukil) from Bajilah. Anas said: ‘They apostatized from Islam, KILLED THE SHEPHERD, herded off the camels, SPREAD TERROR ON THE HIGHWAY, AND RAPED WOMEN. Anas said, ‘The Messenger of God asked Jibril [Angel Gabriel] about the ruling concerning those who brigandage. He (Gabriel) said, ‘Whosoever steals and spreads terror on the highway, cut off his hand for his thievery and his leg for spreading terror. And whosoever kills, kill him. And whosoever kills, spreads terror on the highway, and rapes, crucify him.’” [5]

Ibn Hibban:

“A group from Uraynah (or Ukil) came to the Prophet (p), so he said to the group: ‘Would that you were to go out to our camels, be with them, and drink from their milk… They did. When they became well, they WENT TO THE SHEPHERD of the Messenger of God and KILLED HIM. They returned to unbelief, and STOLE THE CAMELS of the Messenger of God, so the Messenger sent pursuants to look for them. They were brought to him. He cut of their hands, and poked out their eyes.” [6]

Tabarani:

“Prophet Muhammed had a Ghulam called Yasar, he excelled in his prayers (Salah). So he (the Prophet) made him in charge over his camels. One day, a group of people from Urayanah (or Ukil), from Yemen, accepted Islam. When they came to they got ill. Soon after they were fed and their bellies fattened. THEY KILLED HIM (YASAR), AND PUT SPIKES IN HIS (YASAR’S) EYES. Then they fled from the scene and robbed the camels. So the Prophet sent after them his companions, with Kurz Ibn jabir al-Fihri as their leader. They caught them and brought them back (to Madinah). So he cut off their hands and feet and gouged their eyes out.” [7]

Al-Waqidi:

“THE EXPEDITION OF THE COMMANDER KURZ B. JABIR
The expedition took place when the milch camels of the Prophet were raided in shawwal of the year six, in Dhul-Jadr, which lies eight miles from Medina.
… A group of eight from Urayna came before the Messenger of God and converted. They deemed Medina unhealthy, and the Prophet commanded them to be moved to his milch camels that were in Dhul-Jar. The cattle of the Muslims were there in Dhul-Jadr until they became healthy and put on weight. They asked permission of the Prophet to drink the camel’s milk and urine. He permitted them, and in the morning they left with the camels. The Mawla of the Prophet overtook them, but there was a group with them that fought him. They captured him and they cut his hand and leg, and pierced his tongue and eyes with a fork until he died. Then they left with the camels.
A woman from the Banu Amr b. Awf approached on a donkey of hers until she passed Yasar under a tree. When she saw him and what to him, he was dead. She returned to her people and informed them. They set out towards Yasar until they brought him to Quba, dead. The Messenger of God sent twenty riders in the tracks of those from Urayna. He appointed Kurz b. Jabir al-Fihri over them.
They set out in search of them until they reached them at night. They spent the night in the district and rose in the morning, but did not know where to go. All of a sudden, they found themselves with a woman carrying the shoulder of a camel. They took her captive, and said, ‘What do you have with you?’ She said, ‘I passed by a people who had slaughtered a camel and they gave it to me.’ They said, ‘where are they?’ She replied, ‘They are in that wasteland of the district. When you are before them you will see their smoke.’

So they left until they came to the men from Urayna when they had finished their food. They surrounded them and asked them to surrender. All of them were captured; not a man escaped. They tied them and seated them behind them on their horses until they arrived with them in Medina. They found the Messenger of God in al-Ghaba and they set out to meet him. … I set out walking in their tracks with some youths. When the Prophet met them in al-Zaghaba where the waters meet, he commanded that their hands and legs be cut. Their eyes were scooped out and they were crucified there. … When the Prophet cut the hands of the Companions of the milch camels, and their legs, and gouged out their eyes, these verses were revealed: ‘Punishment of those who wage war against God and His Apostle and strive corruption in the land, is execution or crucifixion, or the cutting off of hands and feet from opposite sides… (Q. 5:33) to the end of the verse. … Ibn Bilal related to me from Ja’far b. Muhammad from his father from his grandfather, who said: ‘ The Messenger of God did not cut a tongue ever. Nor did he gouge out an eye. Indeed he did not go beyond cutting hands and feet ever. …” [8]

Ibn Hisham:

“…A band of Qays from Bajila area came to the Messenger of God, who were ill. The Messenger of God suggested to them to ‘go the camels, and drink from their milk…’ They went there, when they recovered from their illness and their bellies fattened, they went against the Messenger of God’s shepherd. They MURDERED HIM, and SHOVED SPIKES INTO HIS EYES, AND ROBBED THE CAMELS. The Messenger of God sent Jurzi Ibn jabir in their pursuit, and they were caught. They were brought to the Messenger of God, while he just came from Dhu Qarad expedition. He cut of their hands, feet and gouged their eyes out.” [9]

Reading these early reports, not only did these criminals rob, murder, and torture the shepherd, by shoving spikes in his eye, slicing him in pieces and poking his eyes out, they also went on to rape women and spread terror through the highway.

We have to keep in mind that the punishments was only carried out on these criminals as a result of the seriousness of what they did to innocent people. Such crimes committed even today would guarantee a criminal person(s) would be given the death penalty in a Democratic country like America, or life imprisonment without parole. As mentioned previously, the punishment meted out was in retaliation for their acts. The Prophet (p) punished them the same way they killed the shepherd. As it is explained by fourteenth century scholar Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali, in his book, Jami’ Al-Ulum Wa’L-Hikam, he states:

“… They say, ‘The Prophet only killed them and cut off their hands because they stole property, and whoever takes property and murders, then necessarily [his limbs] are cut off, he is killed and crucified. So he is killed for his murder, alternate hands and feet are cut off because he took property, and he is crucified because he committed the two criminal acts, murder and robbery together.’ This is the statement of al-Hasan and it is also one narration from Ahmad.

Their eyes were only put out because they themselves put out the eyes of the shepherds, which is what Muslim narrated in the hadith of Anas. Ibn Shihab mentioned that they murdered the shepherd and mutilated him. Ibn Sa’d mentioned that they cut off his hand and his foot, and embedded thorns in his tongue and in the eyes until he died. In this case then, the amputation [of their limbs] and the putting out of their eyes, and left thirsty were as acts of retaliation.” [10]

Moreover, most of the reports contents already cited are accurate on what happened to these criminals. However, there are historical sources that goes back to Prophet Muhammed’s life-time that tell us, that he did not gouge the criminals’ eyes out. Islamic scholar Khaled Abou El Fadl provides ample of these early reports in his book (footnote section), that the part about gouging eyes out (mentioned in some the above sources) did not happen:

“… According to these reports, when the incident with Urayna took place, the Prophet asked the angel Jibril about the proper course of action. Jibril then revealed the verse to the Prophet, and specified that those who steal be amputated from opposite ends, those who murder should be killed, and those who killed and rape should be crucified. The Prophet punished the offenders accordingly, and did not blind any of them.” [11]

As shown, making ‘mischief’ in the land, refers to robbery, murder and rape. This is how it was implemented in the life-time of Muhammed (p) and his Companions.

CONCLUSION:

As we have read this verse (Quran 5:33) in its historical context, we see that the passage refers to an incident of armed robbery, rape and murder where the Prophet (p) prescribed the law of retribution. And the criminals were punished the same way they had punished the shepherd(s). Moreover, Prophet Muhammed (p) ordered the hands and feet of the criminals be cut off, as a punishment from God, for the heinous crimes they had committed such as, robbery, torture, murder, and rape.

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References:

[1] Jami at-Tirmidhi: “Some people from Urainah arrived in Al-Madinah, and they were uncomfortable (and became ill from the climate). So Allah’s Messenger sent them some camels from charity. He told them: “Drink from their milk …” So they killed the camel driver that Allah’s Messenger sent, and they violently drove off the camels, and apostatized from Islam. So the Prophet came to them, he cut off their hands and feet on opposite side, and branded their eyes…” (Jami` at-Tirmidhi volume. 1, Book 1, Hadith 72)
[2] Sunan Ibn Majah: “Some people from (the tribe of) `Urainah came to us (to Al-Madinah) during the time of the Messenger of Allah, but they did not want to stay in Al-Madinah because the climate did not suit them. He said: “Go out to the camels which belong to us, and drink their milk…” So they did that (and recovered), then they apostatized from Islam and killed the herdsman of the Messenger of Allah and stole his camels. The Messenger of Allah sent people after them, and they were brought back. Then he cut off their hands and feet…” (Sunan Ibn Majah volume 3, Book 20, Hadith 2578)
[3] Sunan an-Nasa’i: “Some people from ‘Uraynah came to the Messenger of Allah [SAW], but the climate of Al-Madinah did not suit them. The Messenger of Allah [SAW] said to them: ‘Why don’t you go out to our camels and drink their milk?’” – “So they went out to the camels of the Messenger of Allah [SAW], but when they recovered they killed the herdsman of the Messenger of Allah [SAW], who was a believer, and drove off the camels of the Messenger of Allah [SAW], and left as those at war. He sent (men) after them and they were caught. Then he had their hands and feet cut off…” (Sunan an-Nasa’i volume 5, Book 37, Hadith 4035)
[4] Kitab al-tabaqat al-Kabir, by Ibn Sa’d, volume 2, page 114 – 115
[5] Tabari, jami, by Abu Jafar Muḥammad ibn Jarir al-Ṭabari, volume 10, page 267, (number 11854)
[6] Ibn Hibban, volume 10, page 322 (number 4471), this report is also mentioned in Sunan an-Nasa’i volume 5, Book 37, Hadith 4035.
[7] Tabarani, Mujam, by Abu al-Qasim Sulaiman ibn Ahmad ibn Al-Tabarani, volume 7, page 6 (number 6223)
[8] The Life of Muhammad: Al-Waqidi’s Kitab al-Maghazi [Translator: Rizwi Faizer], page 569 – 570
[9] Al-Sira al-Nabawiyya, Ibn Hisham, volume 2, page 640
[10] The Compendium Of Knowledge and Wisdom (‘Jami’ Al-Ulum Wa’L-Hikam’), [Copyright 1428/2007, Turath publishing] by Ibn Rajab Ibn Hanbali, page 250 – 251
[11] Rebellion and Violence in Islamic Law [2006] By Khaled Abou El Fadl, page 50 – 51

 


Abu Bakr Ar-Raazi: the father of Arab medicine

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He was a unique encyclopedic scientist. He is considered one of the greatest physicians in Islamic culture, and the earliest Arab physician. He was also one of the founders of modern chemistry. He was well-versed in all branches of knowledge and he made significant scientific contributions to medicine, chemistry, mathematics, literature, and so on. For several centuries, his books, especially those written in the field of medicine, the main references for instructors and students alike. He was the scientist and physician Abu Bakr Muhammad Ibn Zakariyya Ar-Raazi. 

His birth and early life

Abu Bakr Ar-Raazi was born about 250 A.H. 864 A.C. in Rey, modern day Iran. He started to seek knowledge in his early years. He studied mathematics, astronomy, chemistry, and logic. Since he was young, he was known for his intelligence, genius, and excellence as far as his academic abilities are concerned. He had the ability to memorize whatever he heard or read in an amazingly fast speed.  

When he was thirty years old, he left for Baghdad which was the center of culture and science at that time. There, he studied chemistry and philosophy but he paid special attention to medicine. His teacher in medicine was the physician Abul Hasan `Ali Ibn Sahl At-Tabari. Ar-Raazi stayed in Baghdad for a while where he studied in the best academies of that time until he returned to his hometown where he was appointed as the head of ReyHospital. After occupying this important position for a short time, Ar-Raazi became famous everywhere.

Therefore, the `Abbasid caliph `Adhud Ad-Dawlah Ibn Buwayh summoned Ar-Raazi to Baghdad and appointed him as the head of the `AdhudianHospital. Ar-Raazi performed the assigned job efficiently.  

Some years later, Ar-Raazi became the grand physician of his time. He also mastered chemistry and was especially well-versed in its application until he became the most famous Muslim pharmacists. 

His unique achievements and inventions

Abu Bakr Ar-Raazi was one of the first pioneers who made great contributions to humanity especially in fields such as medicine, chemistry, pharmacology, and physics. The great influences of these contributions remained until the present day. 

His achievements in medicine and pharmacology: 

- Abu Bakr Ar-Raazi was the first scientist to differentiate between smallpox and measles and he provided a precise description of both diseases and outlined the symptoms of each. 

- He was the first scientist to develop sutures. 

- He was the first scientist to make mercurial ointment.  

- He was the first scientist to introduce chemical compounds in medicine.

 - He was the first scientist to experiment mercury and its salts on monkeys in order to study their effect on their bodies. Thus, he is considered one of the pioneers of experimental research in medicine, as he used to experiment the medicines on animals first and take note of their effect. Then if the animals were cured, he would use the medicines in treating people.  

- He was the first scientist to put sterilized strings in wounds and change them on a daily basis. 

 - He was one of the first physicians to pay attention to hereditary infection as he attributed some illnesses to hereditary factors.

Ar-Raazi was of the opinion that medicine should be first utilized to protect people against illnesses before using it as a means of treatment and cure. 

His famous saying: "If you could treat a patient using (healthy) food, then refrain from using drugs. If you could treat a patient using a drug, then avoid compound drugs." 

 - He was also one of the first physicians who paid attention to the impact of psychological effects in treating patients. He used to advise his students to give their patients the impression that they are not very sick and that they would recover soon.  He said: "A physician must always convince the patient that he will recover, and make him hope to be cured even if he is not sure about it. The performance of the body is greatly effected by its psychological mood." 

 - Ar-Raazi adopted several means in clinical medicine which involved monitoring the patient in bed and recording any symptoms or changes in order to provide proper diagnosis. Among such means were, checking the symptoms on the skin and the eyes, testing the breath, temperature, pulse, and urine.  

- Ar-Raazi also developed an innovative method for choosing the best locations for building a hospital, which remained greatly admired by physicians until today. This method is to place some pieces of meat in different places (in the city) and watch how rotten they became with the passing of time. Of course, the best places in terms of good and healthy environment would be the least effective in making the meat rotten. 

His achievements in chemistry: 

- Scientists consider Abu Bakr Ar-Raazi the father of modern chemistry. His great contribution to this science became evident when he divided the known materials into four categories: metal, plant, animals, and derivative materials. He also divided metals into six categories according to their characteristics and attributes. 

- Abu Bakr Ar-Raazi was the first scientist to refer to sulfuric acid and he called it vitriol oil or green vitriol. He also prepared some other acids in his laboratory and the methods he followed in preparing them are still being used today. 

- He was the first scientist to extract alcohol by distilling fermented starchy and saccharine materials. 

- He was the first scientist to differentiate between soda and potassium. He also prepared some poisonous liquids from vinegar. 

- He was one of the first scientists to apply chemical knowledge in medicine and to recognize the effect of drugs on activating chemical reactions in the patient's body.

His achievements in physics: 

Ar-Raazi was interested in determining the qualitative intensity of liquids, and he developed a special scale for measuring it which he named: "the physical scale". Through this scale, Ar-Raazi is credited for measuring the qualitative intensity of several liquids. Besides, he was one of the first scholars who criticized Euclid's theory of vision which claimed that vision occurs due to a ray that is emitted from the eye to the visible mass. Ar-Raazi was of the opinion that vision occurs because a light beam emits from the visible mass to the eye. 

His writings: 

Abu Bakr Ar-Raazi spent most of his life reading, writing, and experimenting. It was even said that he lost his eyesight at the end of his life because of excessive reading, writing, and experimentations.  Ar-Raazi wrote a large number of books in all fields of knowledge. Some researchers listed about 148 books and treatises authored by him. Some others mentioned that he wrote about 220 books.  Some of his books, especially those concerning medicine, were largely widespread and many of them were translated into several languages. European universities relied on many of them in teaching and even some of his books were the top references in medicine until the seventeenth century.

Among his most famous books are:

Al-Haawi (The Comprehensive):

It is the greatest and most voluminous book written by Ar-Raazi. He spent 15 years writing it. In this voluminous book, Ar-Raazi's skills in medicine, his precise observations, deep knowledge, and capabilities of deduction are abundantly clear. 

- Other books include "Smallpox and Measles", "Al-Mansoori in Medicine", "The Excellent in Medicine", "He Who is not Attended by a Physician", "Stones in Kidneys and the Bladder", "Benefits of Foods", "The Secret of Secrets", "The Pre-requisites of Vision", "Why Magnets Attract" ... etc

His death: 

The scientist and physician, Abu Bakr Ar-Raazi, died in 313 A.H. 925 A.C. when he was in his early sixties. 

His character: 

Abu Bakr Ar-Raazi was a kind-hearted and generous man. He was kind and dutiful to his family, friends, and acquaintances. He was affectionate to the poor and needy as he used to provide them with free medical care and even give them some of his own money as charity as he was a very rich man. He used to exert his best efforts in treating them. Ar-Raazi used to observe Islamic teachings and respect the sacredness of the human body in his researches and experiments. That's why he used to perform anatomy and experiment new medicines on animals first before prescribing them to people.  However, he was kind-hearted towards animals as well as he prescribed many medicines that cure several animal diseases. 

Monday, May 2, 2016

'You' and 'I': The Art of Communication in Marital Life – I

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He said he was coming in ten minutes’ time. Ten minutes pass, half an hour, an hour, and then he shows up.

The wife: "You said ten minutes, and I have been waiting here for an hour."

The husband: "Forgive me, there was too much traffic."

The wife: "This is not the first time. That’s the way you are; always late. You should have called me."

The husband: "My phone is out of credit, and I have no credit to call."

The wife: "How can I trust you? Do you think I am stupid and that all I have to do is to wait for you?"

He looks at her in confusion and stops talking.

Dear husband and wife,

The husband started with a real excuse, then he chose to protect his marital bond through silence.

Change the "you" into an "I":

The term "you" is nothing but a formula for failure in communicating with your husband. It means: “You are guilty and responsible and you have to change. But I am not responsible.”

"I" means that you are thinking in an attempt to interpret the cause of anger. In the above example, the wife is angry, not because the husband is late but because she feels that she is not important to him, which leads to frustration and then anger. This emotion builds up as time passes, and as her attempt to interpret the cause of his delay continues, it leads to other thoughts:

"He always neglects me."

"He gives no importance to me."

"His work is more important to him than me."

"He thinks I have no feelings."

Another emotion:

Why not express the reaction to the delay by using a different emotion?

Feeling sad because she is lonely?

Being afraid that he should be concerned with anything more than her?

Feeling guilty lest she may have done something which made him come home late?

Fearing that something bad might have happened to him?

Sometimes, she could be glad because she managed to be ready before his arrival.

So, when she meets him, she could say:

"I am sad that you came home late, because this means that I am not important to you."

"If only you knew how afraid I was because you were late… I thought something might have happened to you and I was so worried about you."

"If only you knew how eagerly I await you coming home!"

Then, watch him with his eyes sparkling, approaching you, trying to prove the opposite of that. No man on earth can resist such a reception. If the man were to know that he would be received in this way, surely, he would do his best to arrive as soon as possible the next time. Conversely, if he knows there will be a dispute, he will say to himself, "A quarrel is awaiting me anyway, whether I am late for ten minutes or an hour." 

In order not to aggravate the situation, the husband could have said to her when he arrived, "I know that you are upset because I am late and that you have been waiting for me. I apologize."

If each of the spouses leaves the "you" formula, the dialogue will remain open, otherwise, frustration will recur, giving room for anger and resentment to accumulate, which makes any further communication even more difficult.

"I" means that you should ask yourself: "Why am I aggravated?" If you know and address the real cause of aggravation, the pent-up feelings will not accumulate and the reaction will not be negative.

Men must realize that women naturally incline towards caring for others, and devote themselves wholeheartedly to doing so. When a woman’s husband is late, she is concerned about that, and may become tense, and her life and housework may come to a halt because she is worried about him.

The wife should realize that saying "I" instead of "You", and expressing herself using her emotional intelligence will go a long way towards maintaining the channels of communication between her and her husband, instead of silence and an end to dialogue.

Iblees and Adam… I and you

Consider, dear reader, the difference between the speech of Iblees (Satan), may Allah curse him, and the speech of Adam, may Allaah exalt his mention. Allah quoting the words of Iblees in the Quran (what means): {"My Lord, because You have put me in error}[Quran 15:39] i.e. 'You are the cause', Exalted and Hallowed be Allah The Almighty from what he says. On the other hand, Adam's, may Allaah exalt his mention, words also Allah the Almighty citing in the Quran (what means):: {"Our Lord, we have wronged ourselves} [Quran 7:23] it means he holds himself responsible for the sin.

'You' and 'I': The Art of Communication in Marital Life – II

The execution of Khubayb bin 'Adiyy

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The following is an incident that occurred during the era of the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam, and which exemplifies the great sacrifices that his companions, may Allaah be pleased with them, made for the sake of this religion.
 
The execution of Khubayb, may Allaah be pleased with him, has been detailed in many books. One such report is where Abu Hurayrah, may Allaah be pleased with him, reported: “Allaah's Apostle sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam once sent a batch of ten men as spies under the leadership of 'Aasim bin Thaabit Al-Ansaari, who was the grandfather of 'Aasim bin ‘Umar bin Al-Khattaab. They proceeded until they reached Hadaa, which is an area between 'Asfaan and Makkah, and news of their arrival there reached a branch of the tribe of Huthayl named Bani Lihyaan. From this tribe, about two-hundred men, who were all archers, hurriedly pursued their tracks until they found the location where they had eaten the dates that they had brought with them from Madeenah. When they got there, they said: 'These are the dates of Yathrib (i.e. Madeenah),' and continued following the tracks. When 'Aasim and his companions saw their pursuers, they climbed up to a high location, and the infidels encircled them. The infidels said to them: 'Come down and surrender; we promise and guarantee to you that we will not kill any of you.' 'Aasim bin Thaabit, who was the leader of the group, said: 'I swear by Allaah that we will not come down to be under the protection of infidels. O Allaah! Convey our news to Your Prophet.' Then, the infidels began throwing arrows at them until they martyred 'Aasim along with six other men. The remaining three men were again reassured by the infidels and given a guarantee that they would not be killed, which they accepted, and then they came down. These three men were Khubayb bin ‘Adiyy Al-Ansaari, Zayd bin Dathinnah and another man. When they came down however, the infidels captured them, undid the strings of their bows, and tied them up with these strings. The third (of the captives) exclaimed: 'This is the first betrayal. I swear by Allaah that I will not come with you. There is no doubt that they (i.e., his martyred colleagues) have set a good example for us.' So, they dragged him and tried to compel him to accompany them, but as he refused, they killed him. They then took Khubayb and Ibn Dathinnah with them and sold them (as slaves) in Makkah (and all this took place) after the battle of Badr. Khubayb was bought by the sons of Al-Haarith bin 'Aamir bin Nawfal bin 'Abd Manaaf. It was Khubayb who had killed Al-Haarith bin 'Aamir at the battle of Badr. So, Khubayb remained a prisoner with those people.” [Al-Bukhaari]
 
The sons of Al-Haarith the infidel bought Khubayb, may Allaah be pleased with him,in order to execute him and thereby avenge their father's death. They kept him captive until they decided when the execution would take place. While he, may Allaah be pleased with him, was held captive, he borrowed a razor from one of the daughters of Al-Haarith, as in the following narration: Abu Hurayrah, may Allaah be pleased with him, narrated: “The daughter of Al-Haarith said: 'When the people gathered (to execute Khubayb) he borrowed a razor from me so that he could shave his pubic hair. He also took a son of mine who had come to him while I was unaware. I saw him placing my son on his thigh while the razor was in his hand. I was so terrified that Khubayb noticed this from my face. He said: 'Are you afraid that I will kill him? No! I would never do so.' I swear by Allaah that I have never seen a finer prisoner than Khubayb. I swear by Allaah that I once saw him eating of a bunch of grapes that was in his hand whilst he was in iron chains, and there was no fruit at that time in Makkah – it was nothing except provision provided by Allaah to him. When they took him outside the Sanctuary (of Makkah) to kill him, Khubayb requested them to allow him to offer two Rak’ahs (units of prayer). They gave him permission, and he did so. Then, he said to them: 'Had I not feared that you would think that I was afraid (of being executed), I would have prolonged the prayer. O Allaah! Kill them all, without exception.' Then ‘Uqbah the son of Al-Haarith got up and executed him. Therefore, it was Khubayb who set the tradition for any Muslim sentenced to death in captivity to offer a two-Rak'ah prayer (before being executed). Later on, when some infidels of the Quraysh were informed that 'Aasim had been killed, they sent some people to fetch a part of his body (i.e. his head) by which he would be recognisable. (This was because) 'Aasim had killed one of their chiefs on the day (of the battle) of Badr. However, a swarm of wasps resembling a shady cloud were sent to hover over ‘Aasim and protect him from their messenger, and thus they could not cut off anything from his flesh.'” [Al-Bukhaari]
 
Overall, this story is about the battle of Ar-Rajee’, which took place at the end of the third Hijri year. The reason why this group, with 'Aasim, may Allaah be pleased with him, as its chief, was dispatched was that the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam wished to send them on an exploration mission to check upon the tribe of Quraysh. Their movements were discovered by the disbelievers from the tribe of Lihyaan who pursued them. These ten Companions, may Allaah be pleased with them, headed by ‘Aasim, may Allaah be pleased with him, reached the area of Ar-Rajee’ just before dawn and ate dates which they had brought with them from Al-Madeenah. They dropped the seeds of the dates unintentionally, as they were endeavouring to cover any trace of theirs; as a matter of fact, this is why they were travelling at night and settling during the day, lest anyone would see them and, therefore, blow the cover on their mission.
 
However, the decree of Allaah must be fulfilled always, and it was decreed that some of these Companions would be killed as martyrs. Thus, these seeds fell from them and they were discovered.
 
A woman from the Huthayl tribe who was grazing her flock of sheep reached the location where they had eaten and discovered the date seeds. These seeds were smaller than what people were used to in that area, and so she immediately realised that these seeds must have been from the dates of Al-Madeenah. She therefore rushed to her tribesmen to inform them.
 
The men went to where she found the seeds and began tracing the hoof prints of the horses until they reached them. These Companions, may Allaah be pleased with them, were taken by surprise when the men arrived and encircled them, so they resorted to a high area, which seemed to be better for defending themselves, but this tribe was known for their excellence in archery.
 
The disbelievers began negotiating with them and tried to deceive them by promising them security and pledging not to harm them. The leader of the group refused to accept this and justified his position by stating that these disbelievers had no fear of Allaah and would therefore have no problem in breaching their promise and pledge; so he fought until he, may Allaah be pleased with him, was martyred along with six of his companions.
 
'Aasim bin Thaabit, may Allaah be pleased with him, said before his death: "O Allaah! Convey our news to Your Prophet.” Allaah fulfilled the invocation of ‘Aasim bin Thaabit, may Allaah be pleased with him. On that very day on which he was martyred, the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam informed his companions with the news of what had happened to them. 
 
After these men betrayed the three remaining Companions, one of them refused to go with them and was therefore killed by them. The remaining two were then taken to Makkah as these men knew that the Makkans were enraged by the Muslims and would therefore easily buy any of them who had been captured. 
 
The sons of Al-Haarith, who was killed by Khubayb, may Allaah be pleased with him, waited until the sacred months had completed, then they took him outside the sacred sanctuary in order to execute him. During the time he was imprisoned, he was initially mistreated, until he said to his captors: “Honourable and dignified people do not treat their prisoners this way.” This made them stop and treat him decently; they also appointed a woman (one of their sisters) to guard him. 
 
Khubayb, may Allaah be pleased with him, requested a razor to shave his pubic hair with. While the guard woman was unaware, her son walked up to him and sat on his lap, which terrified the woman. In normal cases, a person would have used this as a means of getting back at those who were imprisoning him, or use the situation in order to free himself, but as a Muslim, this is not permitted, as this boy had not committed any crime. 
 
After Khubayb, may Allaah be pleased with him, prayed the two Rak’ahs he supplicated against his captors, as in one of the narrations: “O Allaah! Destroy them all, kill them, scatter them, and do not leave a single one of them.” In another narration, there is the addition: “O Allaah! I do not have anyone to convey my Salaam to Your Messenger, so convey my Salaam to him.” Therefore the angel Jibreel, may Allaah exalt his mention, conveyed the news of Khubayb, may Allaah be pleased with him, to the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam. 
 
There are many benefits and lessons that can be derived from this story, such as: 
 
·        The great sacrifice that these Companions made, despite the dangerous predicament they were in. They went on this mission for the sake of Allaah whilst knowing that it was a very dangerous one. 
 
·        The scholars differed regarding the permissibility of surrendering to one's enemies. Those who hold that it is permissible state that one is nevertheless not to surrender unless he foresees a benefit from surrendering; otherwise, he has to resist until he is killed.
 
·        A Muslim is not allowed to kill the children of the disbelievers.

·        The Karaamaat (i.e. supernatural events or abilities) of the devout and pious are means that Allaah facilitates to support them, such as the grapes that Khubayb, may Allaah be pleased with him, was eating off season, as well as the bees that protected the body of ‘Aasim, may Allaah be pleased with him. Another one of these Karaamaat is the news of these Companions reaching the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam that same day. Also, in some battles in Islaamic history, the Muslim army’s horses were enabled by Allaah to walk on the surface of the sea. One might ask if there is a difference between these Karaamaat and the actions of magicians, or are they considered Karaamaat also? The answer is that Karaamaat are only granted to people who are devoutly obedient to Allaah, who adhere to His commands, have sound faith, and who refrain from His prohibitions. 


Conversely, magicians associate with Allaah in worship and have corrupt faith; they deal with the devils and never pray, and some of them also consume intoxicants and commit adultery and fornication. One should not be deceived by these people and their acts, even if they do perform certain supernatural feats, because the Dajjaal (antichrist) will also have supernatural abilities despite being a disbeliever. A pious person to whom certain supernatural powers are granted would not openly inform others about them; he would conceal these matters in the fear that his intention would become corrupted and that he would therefore fall into ostentation. Quite the opposite of this is what the magicians do; they love to show such feats to others and always exaggerate their abilities. Additionally, in most cases, the supernatural abilities that these people claim are the result of assistance from jinns, such as when they are able to stab themselves with knives, strike their heads with axes, and so on, without inflicting any harm upon themselves.

·        Allaah tests His slaves however, whenever and with whatever He pleases. Having ten Companions killed is not an easy matter to endure, but Allaah is the All Wise, although  people do not comprehend the wisdom behind His actions; Allaah Says what means: “..And [that He may] take to Himself from among you martyrs…”[Quran 3: 140] Allaah wished to honour these people by granting them martyrdom and admitting them into Paradise, and this is certainly superior to remaining alive. Remaining alive entails continuously struggling in this life, whilst after martyrdom a person would enjoy an eternal joyful life; his grave would be illuminated and he would have a gate from Paradise opened towards himself whilst still in his grave. Therefore, the love of Allaah for His devout slaves is the reason for them leaving this life as martyrs, as well as a way of Him honouring them.

·        Shaving the pubic hair is one of the natural dispositions of the human, and this is what Khubayb, may Allaah be pleased with him, wanted to do prior to being killed when he requested the razor.

·        Spying on the enemy before fighting a battle is something that the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam would do as it is a worldly means that should be utilised.

·        A Muslim should be careful not to leave any trace behind him that could lead his enemies to him.

·        A Muslim should act with dignity and pride and should not surrender himself to his enemies, just as ‘Aasim, may Allaah be pleased with him, did when he refused to go down and surrender to the disbelievers.

·        Strength lies in one mastering archery, or sniping in our time. `Uqbah bin `Aamir Al-Juhani, may Allaah be pleased with him, reported: “I heard the Messenger of Allaah sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam saying from the pulpit, “Prepare to meet them (i.e. the enemy) with as much strength as you can afford. Indeed strength is in archery, strength is in archery, strength is in archery.”"[Muslim]

·        One should reflect the merits of Islaam by behaving nobly with others. Khubayb, may Allaah be pleased with him, did so by not harming the woman's boy.

·        Allaah provides for whom He wills, however He wills.


·        The infidels of Quraysh honoured the sanctity of Makkah and refused to kill Khubayb, may Allaah be pleased with him, until they took him outside its boundaries, and after the sacred months had finished. Quite the opposite of this is what some contemporary Muslims do by following women inside the sacred mosque (i.e. Al-Haram) and committing other prohibitions whilst in it, thereby neglecting its sanctity.

·        It is recommended to offer a two Rak’ahs prayer before being executed.

·        It is recommended to supplicate against the disbelievers using the wording that Khubayb, may Allaah be pleased with him, used. This is quite unlike those who suffer from defeatism and spinelessness and who therefore propagate the notion of 'Interfaith', which states that all religions are from Allaah and that we Muslims should therefore neither curse nor supplicate against non-Muslims. They claim that we Muslims should not fight the disbelievers, whilst Allaah Says what means: “Fight those who do not believe in Allaah or in the Last Day and who do not consider unlawful what Allaah and His Messenger have made unlawful and who do not adopt the religion of truth [i.e. Islaam] from those who were given the Scripture - [fight] until they give the jizyah [i.e. protection taxes paid by the disbelievers] willingly while they are humbled.”[Quran 9: 29] This call of Interfaith is a masonic one and is one of the worst forms of disbelief. How can one dare to believe that those who claim Allaah has a son, or that He is one of three (i.e. the trinity) are the same as the Muslims? Muslims can never meet half way with these disbelievers.

·        A dead person is not harmed by what his enemies do to him after killing him.

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